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ASP 100 Flashcards

1. isobaric process

In thermodynamics, an isobaric process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the pressure of the system stays constant

2. The First Law of thermodynamics

The First Law of thermodynamics is a formulation of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic processes.

3. heat

In thermodynamics, an isobaric process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the pressure of the system stays constant

4. The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT)

The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is a type of apparent temperature used to estimate the effect of temperature, humidity, wind speed (wind chill), and visible and infrared radiation (usually sunlight) on humans. It is used by industrial hygienists, athletes, sporting events and the military to determine appropriate exposure levels to high temperatures.

5. Wind chill or windchill

Wind chill or windchill (popularly wind chill factor) is the lowering of body temperature due to the passing flow of lower-temperature air. Wind chill numbers are always lower than the air temperature for values where the formula is valid. When the apparent temperature is higher than the air temperature, the heat index is used instead.

6. The heat index (HI)

The heat index (HI) is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity, in shaded areas, to posit a human-perceived equivalent temperature, as how hot it would feel if the humidity were some other value in the shade.

7. Apparent temperature

Apparent temperature, also known as feels like, is the temperature equivalent perceived by humans, caused by the combined effects of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The measure is most commonly applied to the perceived outdoor temperature.

8. The humidex

The humidex (short for humidity index) is an index number used by Canadian meteorologists to describe how hot the weather feels to the average person, by combining the effect of heat and humidity. The term humidex was coined in 1965.

9. Risk transfer

With reinsurance, the insurer can issue policies with higher limits than would otherwise be allowed, thus being able to take on more risk because some of that risk is now transferred to the re-insurer

10. Risk management

Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events

11. root cause analysis (RCA)

In science and engineering, root cause analysis (RCA) is a method of problem solving used for identifying the root causes of faults or problems

12. causal graphs

In statistics, econometrics, epidemiology, genetics and related disciplines, causal graphs (also known as path diagrams, causal Bayesian networks or DAGs) are probabilistic graphical models used to encode assumptions about the data-generating process.

13. Structural equation modeling (SEM)

Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a label for a diverse set of methods used by scientists in both experimental and observational research across the sciences

14. Epicondylitis ("Tennis Elbow")

1. Caused by jerky, throwing motions
2. Tendons on outside elbow injured or strained

15. Nomenclature

Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terminology used in scientific and any other disciplines.

16. state of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

17. Neutron degeneracy

Neutron degeneracy is analogous to electron degeneracy and is demonstrated in neutron stars, which are partially supported by the pressure from a degenerate neutron gas

18. Matter waves

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality. All matter exhibits wave-like behavior. For example, a beam of electrons can be diffracted just like a beam of light or a water wave. In most cases, however, the wavelength is too small to have a practical impact on day-to-day activities.

19. Tendinitis

Inflammation of tendons associated with repeated moving, bending

20. Trigger Finger

Finger movement not smooth - snaps or jerks

21. White Finger

- Insufficient blood supply causes fingers to become pale
- Arteries closed due to vasospasms triggered by VIBRATIONS
- Working in the cold, working with jackhammers, etc

22. Ergonomics Program Steps/Factors

- All personnel represented on ergo team (labour, management, engineering, safety)
- Training
- Identifying existing or potential problems
- Evaluate risk factors
- Design and implement
- Monitor Effectiveness of corrections

23. Workstation Design (10 Factors)

1. Ensure PROPER MATCH between facility and operator
2. Task design and work DESIGN INTERRELATED
- Forces kept to less than 30% of maximal forces
- Up to 50% acceptable for short durations
- Static forces kept to less than 15% of maximal forces
4. Foot controls OK for seated workers NOT for standing workers
5. Maintain proper SITTING HEIGHT
7. Accommodate LARGE OPERATORS in design
8. BENCH Height
- Sitting 50cm - 70cm
- Standing 89cm
9. Controls and computer screens placed in VISUAL FIELD
10 INSTRUCT and TRAIN operators to use good working posture

24. Standing Work Heights (Delicate, Light, Heavy)

Delicate work - 2"-4" above elbow
- Light work - 2"-4" below elbow
- Heavy work - 6"-16" below elbow

25. REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) (Bag it, tag it) Steps

- Looks at entire body as you do a task - Steps
1. Observe the task
2. Fill out a checklist
3. Compute Scores
4. Compare
5. Interview and Observation
- Based on
- The most difficult postures and work tasks
- Posture sustained for longest period of time
- Posture where highest workloads occur

26. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment)

Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a survey method developed for use in ergonomic investigations of workplaces where work related upper limb disorders are reported. RULA is a screening tool that assesses biomechanical and postural loading on the whole body with particular attention to the neck, trunk and upper limbs. Very similar to REBA - see REBA for steps

27. REBA/RULA Pros/Cons

- User Friendly
- Advanced Degrees/special equipment not required
- Does not consider duration of task - Only allows for looking at one point in time or worst-case scenario
- Must use representative postures

28. System Safety

- Systematic approach to detect deficiencies in system components
- Incorporate safety devices
- Provide warnings
- Develop procedures/training

29. System Safety Analysis (What-if, HAZOP)

- What-if Analysis: INFORMAL investigation introducing and evaluating hypotheticals
- Haz-OP: FORMAL study examining potential deviations from design conditions that could create problems/hazards
- Both frequently a TEAM EFFORT

30. Common forms of energy

Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object (for instance due to its position in a field), the elastic energy stored in a solid object, chemical energy associated with chemical reactions, the radiant energy carried by electromagnetic radiation, and the internal energy contained within a thermodynamic system.

31. Mass

Mass is an intrinsic property of a body. It was traditionally believed to be related to the quantity of matter in a physical body, until the discovery of the atom and particle physics.

32. Velocity

Velocity is the directional speed of an object in motion as an indication of its rate of change in position as observed from a particular frame of reference and as measured by a particular standard of time (e.g. 60 km/h northbound).

33. FMEA (analysis)

- Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
- Looks to potential equipment failures - traced to predict effects
- Analysis leads to critical items list: What are the worst hazards? How to prioritize?

34. STEP analysis

- Simultaneous Timed Events Plotting
- Looks at events from time or sequence perspective

35. MORT

- Management Oversight and Risk Tree
- Identifies risks and refers to proper management

36. the unit of measurement of momentum

In the International System of Units (SI), the unit of measurement of momentum is the kilogram metre per second (kg⋅m/s), which is equivalent to the newton-second.

37. quantum field theory

In quantum field theory, correlation functions, often referred to as correlators or Green's functions, are vacuum expectation values of time-ordered products of field operators.

38. An electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field produced by moving electric charges.[1] It is the field described by classical electrodynamics (a classical field theory) and is the classical counterpart to the quantized electromagnetic field tensor in quantum electrodynamics (a quantum field theory).

39. quantum vacuum state

In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.

40. Human factors and ergonomics

Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as human factors engineering or hfe) is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the engineering and design of products, processes, and systems.

41. unit load

The term unit load refers to the size of an assemblage into which a number of individual items are combined for ease of storage and handling

42. Human error

Human error is an action that has been done but that was "not intended by the actor; not desired by a set of rules or an external observer; or that led the task or system outside its acceptable limits

43. slip

In psychoanalysis, a Freudian slip, also called parapraxis, is an error in speech, memory, or physical action that occurs due to the interference of an unconscious subdued wish or internal train of thought. Classical examples involve slips of the tongue, but psychoanalytic theory also embraces misreadings, mishearings, mistypings, temporary forgettings, and the mislaying and losing of objects.

44. Energy Trace and Barrier Analysis (Part of MORT)

- Incident: unwanted energy flow from inadequate barriers resulting WITHOUT adverse consequences
- Accident: Same but WITH adverse consequences

45. Fault Tree Analysis - Event Types

- Four Event Types:
- Fault Event: Rectangle
- Basic Event: Circle
- Undeveloped Event: Diamond
- Normal Event: House Shape - probability close to 1

46. Fault Tree Analysis - "And" gates; "Or" gates

- "And Gate": A and B both need to occur to lead to C
- A x B = C
- Bullet shape
- "Or Gate": A or B needs to occur to lead to C
- A+B=C
- Looks kind of like an oar (Curved semicircle)
See p. 164-165 for examples

47. Aims of Industrial Hygiene

1. Anticipate
2. Recognize
3. Evaluate
4. Control
Health Hazards

48. TLVs (health hazards)

- Threshold Limit Values
- GUIDELINES in controlling hazards NOT in regulations
- Level of exposure a typical worker can experience without adverse health effects
- Based on industrial experience and lab tests


- Time Weighted Average
- 8-hour workday
- 40-hour work week
- Nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed DAY AFTER DAY without adverse effect


- Short Term Exposure Limit
- Workers can be exposed continuously for a SHORT PERIOD OF TIME without: Irritation
Chronic/irreversible tissue damage Narcosis (stupor, drowsiness, unconsciousness)
- No longer than 15 MINUTES
- No more than 4 TIMES A DAY
- 60 MINUTES BETWEEN exposures


- Permissible Exposure Limit
- Based on TLVs from 1968

52. Ceiling Limit

Concentration should not be exceeded at ANY time

53. Particulate Matter Size Categories

- Inhalable - less than or equal to 100 μm (micro meters)
- Thoracic - less than or equal to 10 micrometers
- These get a little farther into the throat but not far enough to cause any damage
- Respirable - less than or equal to 4 micrometers
- These get far down enough to cause damage

54. Pump and Filter Sampling Method

- Measures for total dust
- Pulls air through filter
- Filter sent to lab to be weighed - Gravimetric method

55. Cyclone Sampling Method

- Used for RESPIRABLE dust
- Uses pump and filter as well
- Cyclone system separates smaller particulate from larger
- Placed in the breathing zone - around face

56. Direct Reading Dust Monitor (Miniram)

- Scatters light in a room and uses to take a reading for dust

57. Photoionization Detector (PID)

- Used to test for amount and class of chemicals in the air
- Immediate qualitative results
- IF you know the individual contaminants you can get quantitative results

58. PID Disadvantages

Poor selectivity
- Adversely affected by: humidity, particulates, hot/corrosive atmospheres
- Must be recalibrated when lamp ages/is contaminated

59. Gas Detector Tubes

- Specific volume of air drawn through tube with hand pump
- In tube you have chemicals that will react with the things you are looking for
- Color changes proportional to concentration

60. Combustible Gas Detector

- Measures combustible gases as a percentage of the lower flammable limit or lower explosive limit (LEL)
- Called a Wheatstone Bridge This is what gas is burned across Part of the combustible gas detector
- Alarm sounds at 10% LEL

61. ISO stands for

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

62. ISO 45001

ISO 45001 is an ISO standard for management systems of occupational health and safety (OHS), published in March 2018.

63. OHSAS 18001

OHSAS 18001, Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series, was an international standard for occupational health and safety management systems that was subsequently adopted as a British Standard. Compliance with it enabled organizations to demonstrate that they had a system in place for occupational health and safety

64. The goal of ISO 45001

The goal of ISO 45001 is the reduction of occupational injuries and diseases, including promoting and protecting physical and mental health.

65. Absorbents (impinger)

LIQUID media absorbs air with contaminant
- Sample drawn through liquid and gas absorbed in liquid
- Liquid analyzed in lab

66. Adsorbents

- SOLID material that retains chemical molecules
Activated carbon most common
- Tube sent to lab for analysis
- Adsorbents can be used:
Actively - air being pulled through media.
Passively - media being worn etc.
- Good for: hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohol, glycol ethers

67. Active Sampling

Two sections: collection adsorbent and breakthrough adsorbent

68. Breakthrough

- Essentially contamination of sample
- High temperature
- Migration of Chemicals

69. Diffusion Sampling

- Passive sampling
- Sample rate determined by Fick's Law - this has been on test
- Uses same media as solid sorbent tubes
- Less obtrusive to the wearer

70. Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration, or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by radiation.

71. Half-life

Half-life (symbol t½) is the time required for a quantity (of substance) to reduce to half of its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo radioactive decay or how long stable atoms survive. The term is also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential (or, rarely, non-exponential) decay.

72. The doubling time

The doubling time is the time it takes for a population to double in size/value. It is applied to population growth, inflation, resource extraction, consumption of goods, compound interest, the volume of malignant tumours, and many other things that tend to grow over time. When the relative growth rate (not the absolute growth rate) is constant, the quantity undergoes exponential growth and has a constant doubling time or period, which can be calculated directly from the growth rate.

73. Biological half-life

Biological half-life (also known as elimination half-life, pharmacologic half-life) is the time taken for concentration of a biological substance (such as a medication) to decrease from its maximum concentration

74. Biological Air Sampling

- Uses pump - air drawn through media
- Collects colony forming units
- Count colonies that grow

75. Trench collapses, or cave-ins

Trench collapses, or cave-ins, pose the greatest risk to workers' lives. To prevent cave-ins:
SLOPE or bench trench walls
SHORE trench walls with supports, or
SHIELD trench walls with trench boxes

76. OSHA trenching and excavation Standards

29 CFR 1926.650, 29 CFR 1926.651, and 29 CFR 1926.652 are applicable OSHA standards.

77. Shoring

Shoring is the process of temporarily supporting a building, vessel, structure, or trench with shores (props) when in danger of collapse or during repairs or alterations. Shoring comes from shore, a timber or metal prop.

78. A box crib or cribbing

A box crib or cribbing is a temporary wooden structure used to support heavy objects during construction, relocation, vehicle extrication and urban search and rescue.

79. Calibration of Air Sampling Instruments

- All air sampling instruments must be calibrated
- Pumps must calibrate airflow BEFORE and AFTER each sampling period
- Electrochemical sensors must be calibrated on a routine basis

80. Vector

Organism is a vector if it spreads disease

81. Fungi

- Everywhere in human environments
- MOISTURE and growth MEDIA lead to growth Term

82. Biological heath hazards

Biological health hazards include bacteria, viruses, parasites and moulds or fungi. They can pose a threat to human health when they are inhaled, eaten or come in contact with skin. They can cause illness such as food poisoning, tetanus, respiratory infections or parasite infection.

83. mVOCs

- Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds
- Spores offgassing when reproducing produces bad smell

84. Legionella

Legionella is a genus of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis (all illnesses caused by Legionella) including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires' disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever.
- Bacteria
- Legionary disease
- In air conditioners, cooling units, cooling towers
- Water Sampling

85. E Col

Escherichia coli , also known as E. coli, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. - Bacteria
- Water Sampling to Detect

86. Drug Resistant Pathogens

- Staph infection
- Tuberculosis (skin and airways)
- Droplet spread respiratory infection
- Influenza
- H1N1: "bird flu"
- H1N5: "swine flu"

87. Parasites

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host and gets its food from or at the expense of its host.
- Bedbugs
- Giardia
- Tapeworms
- Malaria


ALARP ("as low as reasonably practicable"), or ALARA ("as low as reasonably achievable"), is a principle in the regulation and management of safety-critical and safety-involved systems

89. Whole body vibration

Whole body vibration is a generic term used when vibrations (mechanical oscillations) of any frequency are transferred to the human body. Humans are exposed to vibration through a contact surface that is in a mechanical vibrating state. Humans are generally exposed to many different forms of vibration in their daily lives.

90. Vibration white finger (VWF)

Vibration white finger (VWF), also known as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or dead finger,[1] is a secondary form of Raynaud's syndrome, an industrial injury triggered by continuous use of vibrating hand-held machinery.

91. NIOSH Stands for

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

92. Raynaud syndrome

Raynaud syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, named after the physician Auguste Gabriel Maurice Raynaud, who first described it in his doctoral thesis in 1862, is a medical condition in which the spasm of small arteries causes episodes of reduced blood flow to end arterioles

93. The autoignition temperature

The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature in which it spontaneously ignites in a normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark

94. Spontaneous combustion

Spontaneous combustion or spontaneous ignition is a type of combustion which occurs by self-heating (increase in temperature due to exothermic internal reactions), followed by thermal runaway (self-heating which rapidly accelerates to high temperatures) and finally, autoignition

95. Thermal runaway

Thermal runaway describes a process that is accelerated by increased temperature, in turn releasing energy that further increases temperature.

96. exothermic reaction

After an exothermic reaction, more energy has been released to the surroundings than was absorbed to initiate and maintain the reaction.

97. A physical quantity

A physical quantity is a physical property of a material or system that can be quantified by measurement. A physical quantity can be expressed as a value, which is the algebraic multiplication of a ' Numerical value ' and a ' Unit '.

98. potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy held by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors

99. A unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity

100. Metrology

Metrology is the scientific study of measurement. It establishes a common understanding of units, crucial in linking human activities

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