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CRSP 100 Flashcards

1. Examples of pressure systems and equipment

Examples are:
• boilers and steam heating systems
• pressurized process plant and piping
• compressed air systems (fixed and portable)
• pressure cookers, autoclaves and retorts
• heat exchangers and refrigeration plant
• valves, steam traps and filters
• pipework and hoses
• pressure gauges and level indicators
• steam coffee machine

2. Radiant heat

Radiant heat transmission is deadly. Fire emits electromagnetic radiation that can injure or kill passersby or result in spontaneous combustion of materials. Not all fire rated glass prevents the transmission of radiant heat.

3. electromagnetic radiation

Fire emits electromagnetic radiation that travels in invisible waves through space. When these waves hit a combustible material or a person, the radiant energy is absorbed and converted into heat. When radiant heat is absorbed by a combustible material, the object catches fire when the material’s ignition temperature is reached. Protecting people from radiant heat is vital because exposed individuals quickly feel unbearable pain, followed by second-degree burns, making safe egress impossible.

4. Radiant heat is typically measured in

Radiant heat is typically measured on the non-fire side at a distance of 1.5 to 2 meters. Studies of critical radiation levels show that unbearable human pain occurs at 5 kilowatts per square meter. Spontaneous combustion of wood occurs at 12-13 kilowatts per square meter, and values as low as 7.5 have been reported.

5. Metabolic Rate

The resting metabolic rate (about 40-50Watts/m²) is the amount of energy needed for the basic functioning of the body such as respiration, brain processes and that blood circulation that provides oxygen (O2) and nutrients to the cells. The heat produced by these essential metabolism processes spreads to the surrounding cells by conduction and is distributed round the body by fluids such as the blood.

6. Due diligence

Due diligence is the level of judgment, care, prudence, determination, and activity that a person would reasonably be expected to do under particular circumstances.

7. hazard

A hazard is something that can cause harm, e.g. electricity, chemicals, working up a ladder, noise, a keyboard, a bully at work, stress, etc.

8. A risk

A risk is the chance, high or low, that any hazard will actually cause somebody harm. For example, working alone away from your office can be a hazard. The risk of personal danger may be high. Electric cabling is a hazard. If it has snagged on a sharp object, the exposed wiring places it in a 'high-risk' category

9. Benchmarking

Benchmarking: To measure performance against those organizations acknowledged as leaders in their field. Benchmarking is a structured process that allows us to learn from others. It focuses on change (for the better!) not just on analysis, and is generated externally from the process users.

10. An event tree analysis (ETA)

An event tree analysis (ETA) is an inductive procedure that shows all possible outcomes resulting from an accidental (initiating) event, taking into account whether installed safety barriers are functioning or not, and additional events and factors. By studying all relevant accidental events (that have been identified by a preliminary hazard analysis, a HAZOP, or some other technique), the ETA can be used to identify all potential accident scenarios and sequences in a complex system. Design and procedural weaknesses can be identified, and probabilities of the various outcomes from an accidental event can be determined.

11. Fault tree analyses

Fault tree analyses: In many cases there are multiple causes for an accident or other loss-making event. Fault tree analysis is one analytical technique for tracing the events which could contribute. It can be used in accident investigation and in a detailed hazard assessment. The fault tree is a logic diagram based on the principle of multi-causality, which traces all branches of events which could contribute to an accident or failure. It uses sets of symbols, labels and identifiers. But for our purposes, you’ll really only use a handful of these.

12. Workplace inspections

Workplace inspections help prevent incidents, injuries and illnesses. Through a critical examination of the workplace, inspections help to identify and record hazards for corrective action. Health and safety committees can help plan, conduct, report and monitor inspections. Regular workplace inspections are an important part of the overall occupational health and safety program and management system, if present.

13. Hazard Inventory / Job Task Analysis (HI/JTA)

Hazard Inventory / Job Task Analysis (HI/JTA) Packet is intended to gather information on potential hazardous exposures and essential job functions for all Employees. The results of the Hazard Inventory will be used to evaluate work site risks and aid in the identification of appropriate work site monitoring.

14. Job hazard analyses or Job safety analyses

A job hazard analysis (JHA), also called a job safety analysis (JSA), is a technique to identify the dangers of specific tasks in order to reduce the risk of injury to workers.

15. Why is a JHA important?

Once you know what the hazards are, you can reduce or eliminate them before anyone gets hurt. The JHA can also be used to investigate accidents and to train workers how to do their jobs safely. It will take a little time to do your JHAs, but it's time well spent. Be sure to involve employees in the process --- they do the work and often know the best ways to work more safely.

16. Monitoring

Monitoring is also contributing in hazards identification, The overall goal of an occupational hazard monitoring plan is to identify, quantify and ensure that measures to protect the employee from workplace health hazards are in place and remain effective.

17. A Physical Demands Analysis

A Physical Demands Analysis is a systematic procedure to quantify, and evaluate all of the physical and environmental demand components of all essential and nonessential tasks of a job. PDA is a process of establishing what a job is in its. A PDA is the “cornerstone” of the analytical process used to determine compatibility between a worker and a specific job.

18. Risk reassessment

Risk reassessment in project management involves identifying new risks and reassessing current ones. It is also involved in closing risks that are outdated and no longer threatening to the project. There are common actions taken during this particular risk management process. Identifying new risks and analyzing their impact on the project is an important action. This will help the organization develop a risk response plan to mitigate the effects of the risk. It is also involved in identifying risk triggers that have occurred to help develop a contingency plan.

19. A Task Hazard Analysis (THA)

A Task Hazard Analysis (THA) or job hazard analysis (JSA) is a procedure that strives to integrate health and safety principles with specific tasks or operations. The task or job is analyzed by identifying each step in the process and determining the inherent risks and dangers associated with each step. Once these have been identified, the safest methods to apply in performing the task can be identified and implemented.

20. Predictive modeling

Predictive modeling is a mathematical process used to predict future events or outcomes by analyzing patterns in a given set of input data. It is a crucial component of predictive analytics, a type of data analytics which uses current and historical data to forecast activity, behavior and trends.

21. Predictive modeling vs data mining

Predictive modeling is a form of data mining that analyzes historical data with the goal of identifying trends or patterns and then using those insights to predict future outcomes," explained Donncha Carroll a partner in the revenue growth practice of Axiom Consulting Partners. "Essentially, it asks the question, 'have I seen this before' followed by, 'what typically comes after this pattern.'

22. interactive training tools

New training technologies such as Virtual Reality/3D training, gamer apps, and Artificial Intelligence are interactive training tools that make the learning process more interesting, the workplace safer, and should result in higher retention rates

23. ALARP or ALARA

ALARP ("as low as reasonably practicable"), or ALARA ("as low as reasonably achievable"), is a principle in the regulation and management of safety-critical and safety involved systems. The principle is that the residual risk shall be reduced as far as reasonably practicable.

24. The ALARP principle

The ALARP principle arises from the fact that infinite time, effort and money could be spent in the attempt of reducing a risk to zero; not the fact that reducing the risk in half would require a finite time, effort and money. It should not be understood as simply a quantitative measure of benefit against detriment. It is more a best common practice of judgement of the balance of risk and societal benefit

25. Complexity

According to these authors, complexity is an acknowledgment of the limitations in the understanding of how risk can be assessed, based on the available knowledge and the assumptions about the system elements. Their definition clearly relates to the challenges of conducting risk assessments for complex systems.

26. Probability, severity, likelihood

Safety Professionals use a risk matrix to assess the various risks of hazards (and incidents), often during a job hazard analysis. Understanding the components of a risk matrix will allow you and your organization to manage risk effectively and reduce workplace illnesses and injuries.

27. How to Use the Risk Assessment

The Risk Assessment values are determined by multiplying the scores for the Probability and Severity values together. The higher the risk assessment, the greater the overall risk for the project. This method helps balance the weight of severity and probability.

28. Quantitative/Qualitative

The most obvious difference between qualitative and quantitative risk analysis is their approach to the process. Qualitative risk analysis tends to be more subjective. It focuses on identifying risks to measure both the likelihood of a specific risk event occurring during the project life cycle and the impact it will have on the overall schedule should it hit. The goal is to determine severity. Results are then recorded in a risk assessment matrix (or any other form of an intuitive graphical report) in order to communicate outstanding hazards to stakeholders.

29. Quantitative risk analysis

Quantitative risk analysis uses verifiable data to analyze the effects of risk in terms of cost overruns, scope creep, resource consumption, and schedule delays.

30. A risk matrix

A risk matrix is a matrix that is used during risk assessment to define the level of risk by considering the category of probability or likelihood against the category of consequence severity. This is a simple mechanism to increase visibility of risks and assist management decision making

31. Routine vs non-routine work

In routine task Risk analysis involves examining how project outcomes and objectives might change due to the impact of the risk event. Once the risks are identified, they are analysed to identify the qualitative and quantitative impact of the risk on the project so that appropriate steps can be taken to mitigate them.

32. Inherent risk

Inherent risk is the amount of risk that exists in the absence of controls. In other words, before an organization implements any countermeasures at all, the risk they face is inherent risk.

33. Residual risk

Residual risk is the risk that remains after controls are accounted for. It’s the risk that remains after your organization has taken proper precautions.

34. Bow tie analysis.

Bow tie analysis. Bow tie analysis is a risk analysis method used to manage and reduce risks. Bowtie analysis is an advanced risk analysis technique that gives users the ability to not only evaluate the probability and severity of risks, but also document risk causes, quantify potential risk impacts, assign and monitor risk controls, and systematically evaluate the full spectrum of factors that contribute to your organization’s overall risk exposure.

35. Decision tree analysis

A decision tree analysis is a graph or map that displays potential outcomes from a series of related choices. It enables an organization or individual to compare various factors and decisions against one another in order to achieve a desirable outcome.

36. Probability/consequence matrix

Probability and consequence is estimated for use in the risk matrix. Probability assessment We use probability (likelihood) as a measure of how likely we believe it is that an (undesired) event

37. SWIFT analysis

Structured What If Technique (SWIFT) is a prospective hazards analysis method that uses structured brainstorming with guide words and prompts to identify risks, with the aim of being quicker than more intensive methods like Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). It is used in various settings, including healthcare.

38. The Delphi technique

The Delphi technique is a “consensus” research method. In most cases, the goal is to approach a consensus among the expert panel as to future “best” solutions.

39. A ‘bowtie’ diagram

A ‘bowtie’ is a diagram that visualizes the risk you are dealing with in just one, easy to understand the picture. The diagram is shaped like a bow-tie, creating a clear differentiation between proactive

40. Biological Hazard Examples

Biological Hazard Examples
• Human blood and blood products. ...
• Animal waste. ...
• Human bodily matter. ...
• Microbiological waste. ...
• Pathological waste. ...
• Sharps waste. ...
• Molds and yeasts. ...
• Organic material

41. Chemical hazards

Chemical hazards are mainly caused by the characteristics of chemical substances that may cause explosions, fires, or corrosions; or emit poisonous gases or mini particles. Often, chemical substances react negatively when exposed to, or mixed with, other materials or chemical substances. For instance, asbestos particles are usually dispersed in the atmosphere when moved.

42. routes of chemical exposure

There are several routes of chemical exposure as described below.
• Inhalation – that is breathing in toxic vapors or small chemical particles
• Absorption – such as direct exposure to the skin by touching a chemical substance without any protection such as wearing gloves.
• Injection – that is when a sharp contaminated object or needle accidentally penetrates a worker’s body (such as hand or foot)
• Ingestion – that is when toxins are accidentally swallowed

43. Asphyxiants

Asphyxiants: Chemical asphyxiants deprive the body of oxygen; interrupting the transfer and use of oxygen by the bloodstream. Asphyxiant Chemical Examples: Carbon monoxide and cyanide

44. Irritants

Irritants: Chemical hazards that are classified as irritants cause harm to the eyes, skin, or respiratory tract of a person. Irritants are either highly, moderately, or slightly water-soluble. The hazards can manifest as redness, rashes, inflammation, coughing, or hemorrhaging. Irritants are mostly short-term severe illnesses but can also have long-lasting side effects in some people. People can also have an allergic reaction to some of these chemical materials with long-lasting health impacts or even be fatal.

45. Corrosives

Corrosives: Chemical corrosives cause visible and/or irreversible changes to the composition of a material due to direct contact. Similarly, these can also cause a localized reaction in the human body at the point of contact. However, corrosive chemicals also have the potential to produce systemic chemical exposure away from the point of contact when mixed with other substances.

46. Irritants

Irritants: Chemical hazards that are classified as irritants cause harm to the eyes, skin, or respiratory tract of a person. Irritants are either highly, moderately, or slightly water-soluble. The hazards can manifest as redness, rashes, inflammation, coughing, or hemorrhaging. Irritants are mostly short-term severe illnesses but can also have long-lasting side effects in some people. People can also have an allergic reaction to some of these chemical materials with long-lasting health impacts or even be fatal.

47. Sensitizers

Sensitizers: Sensitizers are also known as allergens meaning they cause an allergic reaction in people who face repeated exposure over time to certain chemicals. Reactions to chemicals deemed as sensitizers vary from person to person and can be either acute or chronic. Chemical exposure can manifest as swelling of the airway or develop into dangerous illnesses such as lung disease. Some diseases such as asthma and contact dermatitis become common among people due to over-exposure to chemicals.

48. Carcinogens

Carcinogens: Carcinogens are cancer-causing chemical substances, and a small amount of such a chemical is enough to severely harm human health. The hazards of such chemical substances will only appear many years after exposure. There are over 200 known human carcinogens.

49. Mutagens

Mutagens: Chemicals classified as mutagens cause genetic changes to a cell’s DNA and RNA. Genetic changes can cause cancer, prevent normal biological functions, or may result in the malfunction of a particular organ. Examples: Benzene, ionizing radiation, and hydrogen peroxide

50. Reactive

Reactive: Chemical substances that cause a chemical hazard such as an explosion when mixed or combined with other chemical or non-chemical substances such as water or air.

51. Flammable

Flammable: Many chemicals are characterized as flammable as they can easily burn or ignite when exposed to oxygen.

52. Teratogens

Teratogens: Chemical teratogens can disrupt the normal development of a fetus causing birth defects and even the healthy advancement of pregnancy.

53. The main hazards of working with electricity

The main hazards of working with electricity are:
• electric shock and burns from contact with live parts
• injury from exposure to arcing, fire from faulty electrical equipment or installations
• explosion caused by unsuitable electrical apparatus or static electricity igniting flammable vapours or dusts, for example in a spray paint booth

54. Mechanical hazards

Mechanical hazards include:
• Crushing
• Shearing
• Cutting or severing
• Entanglement
• Drawing-in or trapping
• Impact
• Stabbing or puncture
• Friction or abrasion
• High-pressure fluid injection
• Mobile machinery

55. Dangerous noise levels

Safe and Unsafe Decibel Levels. “Noise above 70 dB over a prolonged period of time may start to damage your hearing. Loud noise above 120 dB can cause immediate harm to your ears. As people respond differently to noise, the exact level at which noise will cause damage is not certain for each person. However, the amount of damage caused by noise depends on the total amount of energy received over time and each person's susceptibility to hearing loss

56. Passive fire protection (PFP)

Passive fire protection (PFP) is defined, in the recently issued ISO standard (ISO, 1999), as 'a coating, cladding or free-standing system which, in the event of a fire, will provide thermal protection to restrict the rate at which heat is transmitted to the object or area being protected'.

57. Educational controls

Educational controls: These controls are based on the knowledge and skills of the employees or individuals performing the task. Effective control is implemented through individual and collective training that ensures performance to a standard.

58. Avoidance

Avoidance: These controls are applied when supervisors and managers take positive action to prevent contact or exposure with the identified hazard.

59. Physical controls

Physical controls: These controls may take the form of barriers and guards or signs to warn employees and others that a hazard exists. Additionally, special controller or supervisory personnel responsible for locating specific hazards fall into this category.

60. Criteria for Controls

To be effective, each control developed must meet the following criteria:
• Support. Availability of adequate personnel, equipment, supplies, and facilities necessary to implement suitable controls.
• Standards. Guidance and procedures for implementing a control are clear, practical, and specific.
• Training. Knowledge and skills are adequate to implement a control.
• Leadership. Supervisors and managers are competent to implement a control.
• Individual. Individual employees are sufficiently self-disciplined to implement a control measure.

61. The hierarchy of controls

The hierarchy of controls is a step-by-step approach to eliminating or reducing workplace hazards. It ranks controls from the most effective level of protection to the least effective level of protection. When choosing a control method, start from the top of the inverted pyramid. Assess the feasibility of the first layer of controls (elimination) before moving onto the second layer (substitution). Continue this process until you reach of the bottom of the pyramid and have identified as many controls as needed to that will adequately protect the worker from the hazard.

62. Elimination

Elimination is the process of removing the hazard from the workplace. It is the most effective way to control a risk because the hazard is no longer present. It is the preferred way to control a hazard and should be used whenever possible.

63. Substitution

Substitution is act of replacing something with another thing… in this case, a hazard is replaced with a less hazardous one. The hazards and risks associated with an alternative must be thoroughly assessed to determine if it is an appropriate replacement. Care must be taken to make sure that the new hazard is actually lower, and that one hazard is not being replaced with another that is just as harmful or more harmful.

64. Engineering controls

Engineering controls are methods that will remove the hazard at the source, before it comes in contact with the worker. Engineering controls can be built into the design of a plant, equipment, or process to minimize the hazard. Engineering controls are a very reliable way to control worker exposures as long as the controls are designed, used, and maintained properly.

65. Process control

Process control involves changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk. Monitoring should be done before and as well as after the change is implemented to make sure the changes did, in fact, control the hazard.

66. Enclosed equipment

An enclosure keeps a selected hazard "physically" away from the worker. Enclosed equipment, for example, is tightly sealed and it is typically only opened for cleaning or maintenance. Other examples include "glove boxes" (where a chemical is in a ventilated and enclosed space and the employee works with the material by using gloves that are built in), abrasive blasting cabinets, or remote-control devices. Care must be taken when the enclosure is opened for maintenance as exposure could occur if adequate precautions are not taken. The enclosure itself must be well maintained to prevent leaks.

67. Isolation of hazardous process

Isolation places the hazardous process "geographically" away from the majority of the workers. Common isolation techniques are to create a contaminant-free or noise-free booth either around the equipment or around the employee workstations.

68. Ventilation

Ventilation is a method of control that "adds" and "removes" air in the work environment. General or dilution ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. Local exhaust ventilation is designed to remove the contaminant at the source so it cannot disperse into the work space and it generally uses lower exhaust rates than general ventilation (general ventilation usually exchanges air in the entire room).

69. Administrative controls

Administrative controls involve developing procedures to ensure the work conducted in a way that minimizes the hazard. Examples include developing or changing policies, implementing or improving training and education, and developing or enhancing work practices and procedures.

70. Methods of administrative control

Methods of administrative control include:
• Using job-rotation schedules or a work-rest schedule that limit the amount of time an individual worker is exposed to a substance.
• Implementing a preventative maintenance program to keep equipment in proper working order
• Scheduling maintenance and other high exposure operations for times when few workers are present (such as evenings, weekends).
• Restricting access to a work area.
• Restricting the task to only those competent or qualified to perform the work.
• Using signs to warn workers of a hazard.

71. Education and Training

Employee education and training on how to conduct their work safely is a critical element of any complete workplace health and safety program. Training must cover not only how to do the job safely but it must also ensure that workers understand the hazards and risks of their job, and the controls in place to protect them. It must also provide them with information on how to protect themselves and co-workers.

72. Good Housekeeping

Good housekeeping is essential to prevent the accumulation of hazardous or toxic materials (e.g., build-up of dust or contaminant on ledges, or beams), or hazardous conditions (e.g., poor stockpiling).

73. Elements of safe work practices

Elements of safe work practices include: Developing and implementing safe work procedures or standard operating procedures.
• Training and education of employees about the operating procedures as well as other necessary workplace training (including WHMIS).
• Establishing and maintaining good housekeeping programs.
• Keeping equipment well maintained.
• Preparing and training for emergency response for incidents such as spills, fire, or employee injury.

74. Personal Hygiene Practices and Facilities

Personal hygiene practices are another effective way to reduce the amount of a hazardous material absorbed, ingested, or inhaled by a worker.
Examples of personal hygiene practices include:
• Washing hands after handling material and before eating, drinking or smoking.
• Avoiding touching lips, nose, and eyes with contaminated hands.
• No smoking, drinking, chewing gum or eating in the work areas - these activities should be permitted only in a "clean" area.
• Not storing hazardous products in the same refrigerator as food items.

75. Emergency Preparedness

Being prepare for emergencies means making sure that the necessary equipment and supplies are readily available and that employees know what to do when something unplanned happens such as a release, spill, fire, or injury. These procedures should be written and employees should have the opportunity to practice their emergency response skills regularly.

76. Personal protective equipment (PPE)

Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to anything workers wear to help protect them from a workplace hazard. The use of PPE as the main method to control exposures should be limited to situations where elimination, substitution, engineering, or administrative controls are not practicable

77. Employee and family assistance programs

It is designed to assist an employee in managing the impact of personal and work-related challenges that affect overall well-being and, inevitably, on-the-job performance.
Services available to employees include:
• Counseling & Therapy
• Financial Solutions
• Caregiving & Aging
• Legal Consultation referrals

78. Fatigue

Work-related factors may include long work hours, long hours of physical or mental activity, insufficient break time between shifts, changes to jobs or shift rotations, inadequate rest, excessive stress, having multiple jobs, or a combination of these factors.

79. Fatigue factors

Fatigue is increased by:
• dim lighting,
• limited visual acuity (i.e., due to weather),
• high temperatures,
• high noise,
• high comfort,
• tasks which must be sustained for long periods of time, and
• work tasks which are long, repetitive, paced, difficult, boring and monotonous.

80. Examples of Employee and family assistance programs

Examples of common programs are as follows:
• Stress reduction programs.
• Weight loss programs.
• Smoking cessation programs.
• Health risk assessments.
• Health screenings.
• Exercise programs and activities.
• Nutrition education.
• Vaccination clinics.

81. Examples of well-established techniques of marketing and changing behavior

using well-established techniques of marketing and changing behavior, such as the following:
• An attention-generating program rollout.
• A wellness program logo and slogans for various components of the program, such as "Every Body Walk Now," "Wellness Wednesday," "Recess" or "Time Out for Tai Chi."
• Visible endorsement and participation by upper management.
• Wellness education based on sound research.
• Persuasion of employees based on anecdotal situations.
• Sustaining the message and the program over several years.
• Multiple avenues of communication, such as e-mail, fliers and presentations.
• Repetition of the message. Keeping the message fresh with new information.

82. Return on investment (ROI)

Return on investment (ROI) or return on costs (ROC) is a ratio between net income (over a period) and investment (costs resulting from an investment of some resources at a point in time). A high ROI means the investment's gains compare favourably to its cost.

83. Design for procurement (DFP)

Design for procurement (DFP) is a concept that procurement professionals apply to enhance procurement activities for the new product that will improve short-term NPD performance and long-term product performance in a sustainable manner to include economic and environmental concerns.

84. Facility design

Facility design is the overall layout of your facility -- including the equipment, work stations, offices, fixtures, machinery, and more. It's an important component in your business's activities and facilities management

85. Human factors in design

Human factors in design refers to ergonomic and aesthetic factors that influence the design of products, systems, and environments. These factors are supported by the use of anthropometric (the measurement of the size and proportions of the human body), psychological, and sensory data gathering and analysis techniques

86. The Prevention through Design

The Prevention through Design National initiative is to prevent or reduce occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities through the inclusion of prevention considerations in all designs that impact workers.

87. Life safety

Life safety means the control and prevention of fire and other life-threatening conditions on a premises for the purpose of preserving human life. Fire safety systems are installed into buildings to help protect people and buildings from fires. They include but are not limited to portable fire extinguishers, sprinklers and fire extinguishing systems, fire alarms and their systems

88. Process safety

Process safety focuses on preventing fires, explosions and chemical accidents in chemical process facilities or other facilities dealing with hazardous materials such as refineries, and oil and gas production installations. Occupational safety and health primarily covers the management of personal safety

89. Safeguarding

Safeguarding: protective measures consisting of the use of specific technical means, called safeguards (guards, protective-devices), to protect workers from hazards that cannot be reasonably removed or sufficiently limited by design.

90. Methods of administrative control

Methods of administrative control include:
• Using job-rotation schedules or a work-rest schedule that limit the amount of time an individual worker is exposed to a substance.
• Implementing a preventative maintenance program to keep equipment in proper working order
• Scheduling maintenance and other high exposure operations for times when few workers are present (such as evenings, weekends).
• Restricting access to a work area.
• Restricting the task to only those competent or qualified to perform the work.
• Using signs to warn workers of a hazard.

91. Elements of safe work practices

Elements of safe work practices include:
• Developing and implementing safe work procedures or standard operating procedures.
• Training and education of employees about the operating procedures as well as other necessary workplace training (including WHMIS).
• Establishing and maintaining good housekeeping programs.
• Keeping equipment well maintained.
• Preparing and training for emergency response for incidents such as spills, fire, or employee injury.

92. Examples of personal hygiene practices

Examples of personal hygiene practices include:
• Washing hands after handling material and before eating, drinking or smoking.
• Avoiding touching lips, nose, and eyes with contaminated hands.
• No smoking, drinking, chewing gum or eating in the work areas - these activities should be permitted only in a "clean" area.
• Not storing hazardous products in the same refrigerator as food items.

93. PPE should only be used When?

PPE should only be used:
• as an interim (short term) measure before controls are implemented;
• where other controls are not available or adequate;
• during activities such as maintenance, clean up, and repair where pre-contact controls are not feasible or effective;
• during emergency situations.

94. PPE

PPE is considered as the last level of protection when all other methods are not available or possible. Before any decision is made to begin or to expand a PPE program, it is important to understand the underlying principles of protection strategies.

95. Two criteria need to be determined PPE

Once the need for PPE has been established, the next task is to select the proper type. Two criteria need to be determined:
• the degree of protection required, and
• the appropriateness of the equipment to the situation (including the practicality of the equipment being used and kept in good repair).

96. main elements of personal protective equipment (PPE)

When the hazard cannot be removed or controlled adequately, personal protective equipment (PPE) may be used. The main elements that must be considered are:
• protection of workers
• compliance with applicable laws / regulations / standards / guidelines
• compliance with internal company requirements
• technical feasibility

97. Match PPE to the hazard

There are no shortcuts to PPE selection. Choose the right PPE to match the hazard. On some jobs, the same task is performed throughout the entire job cycle, so it is easy to select proper PPE. In other instances, workers may be exposed to two or more different hazards.
A welder may require protection against welding gases, harmful light rays, molten metal and flying chips. In such instances, multiple protection is needed: a welding helmet, welders’ goggles and the appropriate respirator, or an air-supplied welding hood.

98. How to Consider physical comfort of PPE (ergonomics)

If a PPE device is unnecessarily heavy or poorly fitted it is unlikely that it will be worn. Note also that if a PPE device is unattractive or uncomfortable, or there is no ability for workers to choose among models, compliance is likely to be poor. When several forms of PPE are worn together, interactions must be kept in mind (e.g., will wearing eye wear interfere with the seal provided by ear muffs?). Use every opportunity to provide flexibility in the choice of PPE as long as it meets required legislation and standards.

99. CSA Standard Z94.3-15

In Canada, various standards exist and the most recent should be used for guidance in the selection process. For example, the CSA Standard Z94.3-15 “Eye and Face Protectors” outlines types of eye wear protectors recommended for particular work hazards.

100. Chain of command

At the top of the chain is the emergency scene commander, a trained employee who will issue orders to others during the emergency. This person might be a facility manager, emergency director, or some other supervisor.

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