Current Status
Not Enrolled
Get Started

CRSP 250 Flashcards

1. Chain of command responsibilities

Assessing the incident to determine if it requires an emergency response. Supervising emergency scene coordinators (volunteer employees that are trained in various emergency tasks). Coordinating professional responders, such as ambulance, police, and fire departments. Directing shutdown of critical workplace equipment or operations and determining if an evacuation is necessary and managing an evacuation

2. Corporate crisis management

Crisis management is the strategy of anticipating crises at the corporate level and planning how to deal with them effectively. Crisis management begins with risk analysis; however, it should not be confused with risk management. Due to the unpredictability of global events, many modern organizations attempt to identify potential crises before they occur in order to sketch out plans to deal with them. When and if a crisis occurs, the organization must be able to drastically change course in order to survive.

3. Detection and mitigation methods

Disaster mitigation measures are those that eliminate or reduce the impacts and risks of hazards through proactive measures taken before an emergency or disaster occurs. An all-hazards emergency management approach looks at all potential risks and impacts, natural and human-induced (intentional and non-intentional) to ensure that decisions made to mitigate against one type of risk do not increase our vulnerability to other risks.

4. Emergency scene coordinators

Emergency scene coordinators should be assigned responsibility for about 20 employees within a particular work area. They should know how to respond to the emergencies that may occur at your worksite, the evacuation procedures, and how to use emergency communication equipment. They should also be trained in CPR, first aid, and how to respond to threats of violence.

5. Types of disaster mitigation

Disaster mitigation measures may be structural (e.g. flood dikes) or non-structural (e.g. land use zoning). Mitigation activities should incorporate the measurement and assessment of the evolving risk environment. Activities may include the creation of comprehensive, pro-active tools that help decide where to focus funding and efforts in risk reduction.

6. examples of mitigation measures

• Hazard mapping
• Adoption and enforcement of land use and zoning practices
• Implementing and enforcing building codes
• Flood plain mapping
• Reinforced tornado safe rooms
• Burying of electrical cables to prevent ice build-up
• Raising of homes in flood-prone areas

7. Mitigation: Preventing future emergencies or minimizing their effects

Includes any activities that prevent an emergency, reduce the chance of an emergency happening, or reduce the damaging effects of unavoidable emergencies. Buying flood and fire insurance for your home is a mitigation activity. Mitigation activities take place before and after emergencies.

8. Preparedness: Preparing to handle an emergency

Includes plans or preparations made to save lives and to help response and rescue operations. Evacuation plans and stocking food and water are both examples of preparedness. Preparedness activities take place before an emergency occurs.

9. Response: Responding safely to an emergency

Includes actions taken to save lives and prevent further property damage in an emergency situation. Response is putting your preparedness plans into action. Seeking shelter from a tornado or turning off gas valves in an earthquake are both response activities. Response activities take place during an emergency.

10. Recovery: Recovering from an emergency

Includes actions taken to return to a normal or an even safer situation following an emergency. Recovery includes getting financial assistance to help pay for the repairs. Recovery activities take place after an emergency.

11. Mitigation

This phase includes any activities that prevent an emergency, reduce the likelihood of occurrence, or reduce the damaging effects of unavoidable hazards. Mitigation activities should be considered long before an emergency.

12. Recovery

After an emergency and once the immediate danger is over, your continued safety and well-being will depend on your ability to cope with rearranging your life and environment. During the recovery period, you must take care of yourself and your animals to prevent stress-related illnesses and excessive financial burdens. During recovery, you should also consider things to do that would lessen (mitigate) the effects of future disasters.

13. Preparedness

This phase includes developing plans for what to do, where to go, or who to call for help before an event occurs; actions that will improve your chances of successfully dealing with an emergency. For instance, posting emergency telephone numbers, holding disaster drills, and installing smoke detectors are all preparedness measures. Other examples include identifying where you would be able to shelter your animals in a disaster. You should also consider preparing a disaster kit with essential supplies for your family and animals.

14. Key components of an Emergency Action Plan

Evacuation procedures, escape routes and floor plans
• Reporting and alerting authorities
• Alerting staff and visitors of an emergency
• Accounting for people after implementing an EAP
• Notifying parents, guardians or next of kin
• Identifying a media contact person
• Training new staff
• Policies for updating and maintaining the EAP

15. Emergencies Outside of the Building

Emergencies Outside of the Building — Hiding in a secured area is an appropriate response to emergencies that begin outside of the building like tornadoes or lightning storms. Violent emergencies like active shooter scenarios are also an appropriate time to hide. Note that these instances will make the task of locating everyone a challenge.

16. Evacuation Procedures, Escape Routes, and Floor Plans

In the event of an emergency, people need to respond quickly; knowing where to go and how to get there is often an important part of a quick response. Depending on the type of emergency, people will either need to exit the building as quickly as possible or be prepared to navigate to a safer part of the building. It is important each person knows exactly where to go in the event of an emergency.

17. Implementation of preparedness and testing

It is also important to recognize that some emergency responses will have radically different recommendations than others. Fires and tornadoes, for example, have two very different requirements. During a fire evacuation the main objective is to get out of the building as quickly as possible, while during a tornado the goal is to get everyone inside the building. Sometimes it will be even more complicated, like during an active shooter emergency, where hiding within the building may be the best option for some and evacuating may be the best option for others.

18. Why Current floor plans are an integral part of every written EAP?

Regardless of the emergency, an EAP should contain an up-to-date floor plan for the entire property. The floor plan should include clearly marked evacuation routes and all emergency exits should be easily identifiable. Remember, this information isn’t only posted for the good of employees; guests, including emergency personnel, will rely on this information to navigate the building safely.

19. Emergencies Within the Building

Emergencies Within the Building — For emergencies occurring inside of the facility (e.g., fires, power outages, etc.), the main goal is to get everyone out of harms way. To achieve this goal, staff should be aware of the fastest and safest way out of the building. It will also be necessary to ensure that evacuation procedures are easily accessible to customers or visitors inside of the building. Having a broad understanding of the layout of a building can help staff prepare for unanticipated detours along the most common emergency exits.

20. Health Emergencies

Health Emergencies — If someone inside of the building is injured or harmed in some way, an EAP should be initiated quickly. Staff should be prepared to respond to a wide range of plausible health scares such as a heart attack, seizure, possible drowning and more. Depending on the emergency, local emergency medical services may be contacted. Be sure that these authorities will have easy access to the injured person and they’ll be able to exit the building quickly when it is time to do so.

21. Reporting and Alerting Authorities

Most emergencies will require the involvement of police, fire and rescue, and medical professionals. Contacting these authorities is usually as easy as dialing 9-1-1. With that said, it’s important that someone in the organization be designated to make that call. There’s nothing worse than a delayed response because everyone assumed someone else contacted authorities.

22. Alerting Staff and Visitors of an Emergency

In addition to alerting the proper authorities, it is equally important to communicate to all staff and guests that an emergency is occurring. The exact method of communication will vary based on the size and design of the facility and the type of emergency.

23. Identifying a Media Contact Person

Depending on the type and severity of the emergency, there’s a possibility that a member of the media will contact your organization seeking information. When dealing with the media it is important to have a single individual identified as the media contact person. Instruct all staff within your organization to direct any inquiries from both the media and the public to them. This individual should be well trained on how to respond properly to sensitive questioning and should know what information is and is not acceptable to divulge.

24. The Department’s Return to Work and Compensation Team

The Department’s Return to Work and Compensation Team is in Canada to support, assist and influence the health and wellbeing of employees to return to work after a workplace injury and meet our Workers Compensation obligations.

25. The major goals of an SMS

The major goals of an SMS are to
• Provide a systematic approach for an organization to manage risk,
• Identify risks and implement effective controls,
• Serve as a continuous improvement process,
• Provide an early means to determine when a process is noncompliant,
• Provide areas of specific responsibilities.

26. A Safety Management System (SMS)

A Safety Management System (SMS) can be defined as a comprehensive management system that provides a platform for the integration of safety program elements, including responsibilities, policies, individual procedures, and the overall goals and objectives, with the end result being a continuous improvement for the control of risks.

27. Components of a Safety Management System (SMS).

Components of a Safety Management System (SMS). There are four major components of an SMS
Safety policy,
Safety risk management
Safety assurance
Safety promotion

28. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs In 1943, Abraham Maslow introduced his Hierarchy of Needs Theory. In this theory, Maslow proposed that all human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs and that certain lower factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. Figure 19.11 illustrates Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (represented in pyramid form to illustrate the lower to higher factors). Maslow theorized that the lower needs have to be satisfied before the next need level serves as a motivator.

29. Motivation

Motivation: It involves employees in the whole process of goal setting and increases empowerment and employee’s job satisfaction and commitment.

30. Management by Objectives

Peter Drucker first used the term management by objectives in 1954. MBO is the process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they are in the organization.

31. The main focus of MBO

The main focus of MBO is to set established goals for the organization by allowing both management and employees to participate in the process. By doing this, the employee achieves personal goals and has a direct impact on the success of the organization.

32. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs includes physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, and self- actualization.

33. Permissive leaders

Permissive leaders permit participation in the decision-making process.

34. Autocratic leaders

Autocratic leaders make decisions unilaterally.

35. The Deming cycle

The Deming cycle has four steps, which are continuous, namely, plan, do, check, and act.

36. Herzberg’s Motivation Theory

Herzberg’s Motivation Theory classifies factors into two categories: hygiene factors and motivation factors.

37. McGregor’s Theory Y

McGregor’s Theory Y states that employees like to work and, when their needs are met, actually seek out responsibility.

38. McGregor’s Theory X

McGregor’s Theory X states that employees do not want to work and are only motivated by money.

39. Accident causation

Accident causation is a safety model that interprets different acts and/or conditions as potential factors leading to accidents that could result in possible minor or serious injuries and/or damaged equipment.

40. the domino theory

In 1932, safety engineer H.W. Heinrich introduced the domino theory covering key points designed to identify distinct elements attributed to accident causation. In essence, the domino theory represents a sequence of factors or chain of events such as repeat human error and/or neglected mechanical hazards creating an unsafe work environment. Since accidents are often unpredictable occurrences, the primary objective for employers to consider is to target the source and circumstances related to the accident.

41. Employee unions

Employee unions, if applicable to your business, frequently cite safety and health programs, or lack thereof, in their contract negotiations. A strong Safety Management System can assist in alleviating contract disputes.

42. The costs of safety and health programs

The costs of safety and health programs are perceived as low added value in many business areas. This couldn’t be farther from the truth. Safe workplaces are more efficient, more productive, and the substantial costs of injuries and occupational illnesses should be significantly reduced by implementing a Safety Management System.

43. the benefits of a Safety Management System

Here are some of the benefits of a Safety Management System
1. Reduced administrative costs
2. The potential for reduced insurance and liability costs
3. Positive employee impacts and protection of worker health
4. Enhanced image within your company for employees, the communist, clients and customers, and stakeholders
5. Improve regulatory compliance
6. Improved employee performance
7. Reduced costs from injuries and illnesses

44. ISO 9000

The ISO 9000 family is a set of five quality management systems (QMS) standards that help organizations ensure they meet customer and other stakeholder needs within statutory and regulatory requirements related to a product or service.

45. ISO 14000

ISO 14000 is a family of ‘standards’ - the standard (14001) + guidelines (see list of 14000 standards below) - related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes, etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally

46. Integrated Health and Safety

Integrated Health and Safety is the strategic and systematic integration of distinct health and safety programs and policies into a continuum of organizational, personal, occupational, community, and environmental activities that are replicable, measurable, and integrated.

47. Organizational culture

Organizational culture is the collection of values, expectations, and practices that guide and inform the actions of all team members. Think of it as the collection of traits that make your company what it is. A great culture exemplifies positive traits that lead to improved performance, while a dysfunctional company culture brings out qualities that can hinder even the most successful organizations.

48. The organizational climate

The organizational climate is the pervading feeling or emotions associated with the particular work environment. Climate is influenced by leadership, the type of language used in interactions, and can change often based on the quality of interactions and the types of events. The organizational climate is your perception of your work environment.

49. Proactive behavior

Proactive behavior addresses future conditions, circumstances or crises. Being proactive revolves around the anticipation of problems or issues to design plans that avoid negative outcomes or prepare for positive results. People who practice proactive behavior tend to look at the entire situation to plan for unforeseen circumstances.

50. Reactive behavior

Reactive behavior often refers to an immediate response to feelings about an uncontrollable situation, a problem or other issue. Reactions often result from actions that took place in the past. For instance, feeling disappointed over a football team's loss is reactive behavior. In some cases, reactive behavior results when an employee or manager places others' needs over their own priorities to provide an immediate response.

51. The safety policy

The law requires that the written health and safety policy should include the following three sections: A health and safety policy statement of intent which includes the health and safety aims and objectives of the organization;

52. An employee survey

An employee survey is a questionnaire designed to evaluate morale, engagement, achievement, and overall employee satisfaction. Think of this survey as an essential employee feedback medium you can use to gauge how productive and motivated your employees are at work.

53. Program & Event KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)

Program & Event KPIs (Key Performance Indicators): Sometimes what happens outside of employee’s roles and day-to-day tasks can be the most telling. Another way to measure the health of your culture is to track attendance at social events or wellness campaigns over time. While everyone’s reasons for not attending vary, a general lack of involvement could indicate a lack of social cohesion and shared values across employees.

54. Anecdotes

Keep track of anecdotal feedback to uncover patterns or common themes. Make a point to review the anecdotes in leadership meetings weekly, monthly, or quarterly. Some examples of places you can collect these include exit interviews, Glassdoor reviews, and social media posts.

55. Tracking HR KPIs

HR/Workforce KPIs/ Business KPI, Analytics and Insights (Key Performance Indicators) Tracking HR KPIs is key to understanding important cultural shifts (positive and negative.) The good news is that most of this data is likely readily available in your HRIS (Human Resources Information System.)

56. Occupational health and safety (OH&S) legislation in Canada

Occupational health and safety (OH&S) legislation in each jurisdiction outlines the general rights and responsibilities of the employer, the supervisor and the worker through an Act or statute and related regulations. Regulations made under an Act define the application and enforcement of an Act. Each of the ten provinces, three territories and the federal government has its own OH&S legislation.


The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) is a professional association of industrial hygienists and practitioners of related professions, with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. One of its goals is to advance worker protection by providing timely, objective, scientific information to occupational and environmental health professionals.

58. ANSI

The American National Standards Institute is a private nonprofit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.

59. NFPA

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a global self-funded nonprofit organization, established in 1896, devoted to eliminating death, injury, property and economic loss due to fire


There is special "right-to-know" legislation that applies to hazardous products. It comprises a series of complimentary federal, provincial and territorial laws and regulations collectively called WHMIS - the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System.

61. Canada Labour Code

The federal health and safety legislation is commonly referred to as Canada Labour Code Part II and regulations under the Code. These laws apply to federal departments and federal crown corporations. The Canada Labour Code also applies to employees of companies or sectors that operate across provincial or international borders.

62. The ISO

ISO- ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies.

63. ISO 45001

ISO 45001 is the world's international standard for occupational health and safety, issued to protect employees and visitors from work-related accidents and diseases. ISO 45001 certification was developed to mitigate any factors that can cause employees and businesses irreparable harm.

64. The CSA

CSA- The CSA Group is a standards organization which develops standards in 57 areas. CSA publishes standards in print and electronic form, and provides training and advisory services. CSA is composed of representatives from industry, government, and consumer groups. CSA began as the Canadian Engineering Standards Association (CESA) in 1919, federally chartered to create standards. During World War I, lack of interoperability between technical resources led to the formation of a standards committee.

65. ANSI

ANSI- The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a non-profit organization that promotes voluntary conformity standards in the United States. ANSI also represents the United States in international standards organizations, helping to create guidelines that are universally accepted in multiple industries.

66. The CSA registered mark

The CSA registered mark shows that a product has been independently tested and certified to meet recognized standards for safety or performance.

67. Civil Law

In their technical, narrow sense, the words civil law describe the law that pertains to persons, things, and relationships that develop among them, excluding not only criminal law but also commercial law, labor law, etc. Under civil law, if someone has been injured or made ill through your negligence as an employer, they may be able to make a compensation claim against you. You can also be found liable if someone who works for you has been negligent and caused harm to someone else

68. Common Law

Common law is a body of unwritten laws based on legal precedents established by the courts. Common law influences the decision-making process in unusual cases where the outcome cannot be determined based on existing statutes or written rules of law. At common law, which creates a civil liability, an employer is under a duty to take reasonable care for the health and safety of its employees, with this duty covering both physical and mental injuries.

69. Criminal Law

Criminal is a popular term used for a person who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime. Criminal also means being connected with a crime. When certain acts or people are involved in or related to a crime, they are termed as criminal. Health and safety law (criminal law) Under health and safety law, as an employer, you have a responsibility to protect workers and others from risk to their health and safety. For straightforward guidance on how to comply with the law, read Health and safety made simple

70. Compensation Law

workers' compensation legislation in Canada is mandated at the equivalent to the State level. Canadian Workers' Compensation Boards (WCB) are provincially and territorially regulated throughout the Country and provide insurance for workplace injuries and illnesses.

71. Employment Law

Labour law arbitrates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government whereas employment law is the collection of laws and rules that regulate relationships between employers and employees.

72. Human Rights Law

The Canadian Human Rights Act of 1977 protects people in Canada from discrimination when they are employed by or receive services from the federal government, First Nations governments or private companies that are regulated by the federal government such as banks, trucking companies, broadcasters and telecommunications companies.

73. Privacy Law

The Privacy Act relates to a person's right to access and correct personal information that the Government of Canada holds about them. The Act also applies to the Government's collection, use and disclosure of personal information in the course of providing services such as: old age security pensions.

74. Product liability

It covers legal liability of the Organization to the third parties for Bodily Injury or illness and/ or Property Damage arising out of the Products manufactured, sold and distributed by the Insured, subject always to Policy terms and conditions.

75. Property Law

Canadian property law, or property law in Canada, is the body of law concerning the rights of individuals over land, objects, and expression within Canada. It encompasses personal property, real property, and intellectual property

76. Tort Law

Canadian Tort Law holds anyone liable who causes damage to you or your property. Its primary function is to compensate people who have suffered a loss or an injury. Everyone has a legal duty to uphold the law. A tort claim is made when someone breaches that legal duty.

77. Examples of pressure systems and equipment

Examples are:
• boilers and steam heating systems
• pressurized process plant and piping
• compressed air systems (fixed and portable)
• pressure cookers, autoclaves and retorts
• heat exchangers and refrigeration plant
• valves, steam traps and filters
• pipework and hoses
• pressure gauges and level indicators
• steam coffee machine

78. Radiant heat

Radiant heat transmission is deadly. Fire emits electromagnetic radiation that can injure or kill passersby or result in spontaneous combustion of materials. Not all fire rated glass prevents the transmission of radiant heat.

79. electromagnetic radiation

Fire emits electromagnetic radiation that travels in invisible waves through space. When these waves hit a combustible material or a person, the radiant energy is absorbed and converted into heat. When radiant heat is absorbed by a combustible material, the object catches fire when the material’s ignition temperature is reached. Protecting people from radiant heat is vital because exposed individuals quickly feel unbearable pain, followed by second-degree burns, making safe egress impossible.

80. Radiant heat is typically measured in

Radiant heat is typically measured on the non-fire side at a distance of 1.5 to 2 meters. Studies of critical radiation levels show that unbearable human pain occurs at 5 kilowatts per square meter. Spontaneous combustion of wood occurs at 12-13 kilowatts per square meter, and values as low as 7.5 have been reported.

81. Metabolic Rate

The resting metabolic rate (about 40-50Watts/m²) is the amount of energy needed for the basic functioning of the body such as respiration, brain processes and that blood circulation that provides oxygen (O2) and nutrients to the cells. The heat produced by these essential metabolism processes spreads to the surrounding cells by conduction and is distributed round the body by fluids such as the blood.

82. Due diligence

Due diligence is the level of judgment, care, prudence, determination, and activity that a person would reasonably be expected to do under particular circumstances.

83. hazard

A hazard is something that can cause harm, e.g. electricity, chemicals, working up a ladder, noise, a keyboard, a bully at work, stress, etc.

84. A risk

A risk is the chance, high or low, that any hazard will actually cause somebody harm. For example, working alone away from your office can be a hazard. The risk of personal danger may be high. Electric cabling is a hazard. If it has snagged on a sharp object, the exposed wiring places it in a 'high-risk' category

85. Benchmarking

Benchmarking: To measure performance against those organizations acknowledged as leaders in their field. Benchmarking is a structured process that allows us to learn from others. It focuses on change (for the better!) not just on analysis, and is generated externally from the process users.

86. An event tree analysis (ETA)

An event tree analysis (ETA) is an inductive procedure that shows all possible outcomes resulting from an accidental (initiating) event, taking into account whether installed safety barriers are functioning or not, and additional events and factors. By studying all relevant accidental events (that have been identified by a preliminary hazard analysis, a HAZOP, or some other technique), the ETA can be used to identify all potential accident scenarios and sequences in a complex system. Design and procedural weaknesses can be identified, and probabilities of the various outcomes from an accidental event can be determined.

87. Fault tree analyses

Fault tree analyses: In many cases there are multiple causes for an accident or other loss-making event. Fault tree analysis is one analytical technique for tracing the events which could contribute. It can be used in accident investigation and in a detailed hazard assessment. The fault tree is a logic diagram based on the principle of multi-causality, which traces all branches of events which could contribute to an accident or failure. It uses sets of symbols, labels and identifiers. But for our purposes, you’ll really only use a handful of these.

88. Workplace inspections

Workplace inspections help prevent incidents, injuries and illnesses. Through a critical examination of the workplace, inspections help to identify and record hazards for corrective action. Health and safety committees can help plan, conduct, report and monitor inspections. Regular workplace inspections are an important part of the overall occupational health and safety program and management system, if present.

89. Hazard Inventory / Job Task Analysis (HI/JTA)

Hazard Inventory / Job Task Analysis (HI/JTA) Packet is intended to gather information on potential hazardous exposures and essential job functions for all Employees. The results of the Hazard Inventory will be used to evaluate work site risks and aid in the identification of appropriate work site monitoring.

90. Job hazard analyses or Job safety analyses

A job hazard analysis (JHA), also called a job safety analysis (JSA), is a technique to identify the dangers of specific tasks in order to reduce the risk of injury to workers.

91. Why is a JHA important?

Once you know what the hazards are, you can reduce or eliminate them before anyone gets hurt. The JHA can also be used to investigate accidents and to train workers how to do their jobs safely. It will take a little time to do your JHAs, but it's time well spent. Be sure to involve employees in the process --- they do the work and often know the best ways to work more safely.

92. Monitoring

Monitoring is also contributing in hazards identification, The overall goal of an occupational hazard monitoring plan is to identify, quantify and ensure that measures to protect the employee from workplace health hazards are in place and remain effective.

93. A Physical Demands Analysis

A Physical Demands Analysis is a systematic procedure to quantify, and evaluate all of the physical and environmental demand components of all essential and nonessential tasks of a job. PDA is a process of establishing what a job is in its. A PDA is the “cornerstone” of the analytical process used to determine compatibility between a worker and a specific job.

94. Risk reassessment

Risk reassessment in project management involves identifying new risks and reassessing current ones. It is also involved in closing risks that are outdated and no longer threatening to the project. There are common actions taken during this particular risk management process. Identifying new risks and analyzing their impact on the project is an important action. This will help the organization develop a risk response plan to mitigate the effects of the risk. It is also involved in identifying risk triggers that have occurred to help develop a contingency plan.

95. A Task Hazard Analysis (THA)

A Task Hazard Analysis (THA) or job hazard analysis (JSA) is a procedure that strives to integrate health and safety principles with specific tasks or operations. The task or job is analyzed by identifying each step in the process and determining the inherent risks and dangers associated with each step. Once these have been identified, the safest methods to apply in performing the task can be identified and implemented.

96. Predictive modeling

Predictive modeling is a mathematical process used to predict future events or outcomes by analyzing patterns in a given set of input data. It is a crucial component of predictive analytics, a type of data analytics which uses current and historical data to forecast activity, behavior and trends.

97. Predictive modeling vs data mining

Predictive modeling is a form of data mining that analyzes historical data with the goal of identifying trends or patterns and then using those insights to predict future outcomes," explained Donncha Carroll a partner in the revenue growth practice of Axiom Consulting Partners. "Essentially, it asks the question, 'have I seen this before' followed by, 'what typically comes after this pattern.'

98. interactive training tools

New training technologies such as Virtual Reality/3D training, gamer apps, and Artificial Intelligence are interactive training tools that make the learning process more interesting, the workplace safer, and should result in higher retention rates

99. Complexity

According to these authors, complexity is an acknowledgment of the limitations in the understanding of how risk can be assessed, based on the available knowledge and the assumptions about the system elements. Their definition clearly relates to the challenges of conducting risk assessments for complex systems.

100. Probability, severity, likelihood

Safety Professionals use a risk matrix to assess the various risks of hazards (and incidents), often during a job hazard analysis. Understanding the components of a risk matrix will allow you and your organization to manage risk effectively and reduce workplace illnesses and injuries.

101. How to Use the Risk Assessment

The Risk Assessment values are determined by multiplying the scores for the Probability and Severity values together. The higher the risk assessment, the greater the overall risk for the project. This method helps balance the weight of severity and probability.

102. Quantitative/Qualitative

The most obvious difference between qualitative and quantitative risk analysis is their approach to the process. Qualitative risk analysis tends to be more subjective. It focuses on identifying risks to measure both the likelihood of a specific risk event occurring during the project life cycle and the impact it will have on the overall schedule should it hit. The goal is to determine severity. Results are then recorded in a risk assessment matrix (or any other form of an intuitive graphical report) in order to communicate outstanding hazards to stakeholders.

103. Quantitative risk analysis

Quantitative risk analysis uses verifiable data to analyze the effects of risk in terms of cost overruns, scope creep, resource consumption, and schedule delays.

104. A risk matrix

A risk matrix is a matrix that is used during risk assessment to define the level of risk by considering the category of probability or likelihood against the category of consequence severity. This is a simple mechanism to increase visibility of risks and assist management decision making

105. Routine vs non-routine work

In routine task Risk analysis involves examining how project outcomes and objectives might change due to the impact of the risk event. Once the risks are identified, they are analysed to identify the qualitative and quantitative impact of the risk on the project so that appropriate steps can be taken to mitigate them.

106. Inherent risk

Inherent risk is the amount of risk that exists in the absence of controls. In other words, before an organization implements any countermeasures at all, the risk they face is inherent risk.

107. Residual risk

Residual risk is the risk that remains after controls are accounted for. It’s the risk that remains after your organization has taken proper precautions.

108. Bow tie analysis.

Bow tie analysis. Bow tie analysis is a risk analysis method used to manage and reduce risks. Bowtie analysis is an advanced risk analysis technique that gives users the ability to not only evaluate the probability and severity of risks, but also document risk causes, quantify potential risk impacts, assign and monitor risk controls, and systematically evaluate the full spectrum of factors that contribute to your organization’s overall risk exposure.

109. Decision tree analysis

A decision tree analysis is a graph or map that displays potential outcomes from a series of related choices. It enables an organization or individual to compare various factors and decisions against one another in order to achieve a desirable outcome.

110. Probability/consequence matrix

Probability and consequence is estimated for use in the risk matrix. Probability assessment We use probability (likelihood) as a measure of how likely we believe it is that an (undesired) event

111. SWIFT analysis

Structured What If Technique (SWIFT) is a prospective hazards analysis method that uses structured brainstorming with guide words and prompts to identify risks, with the aim of being quicker than more intensive methods like Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). It is used in various settings, including healthcare.

112. The Delphi technique

The Delphi technique is a “consensus” research method. In most cases, the goal is to approach a consensus among the expert panel as to future “best” solutions.

113. A ‘bowtie’ diagram

A ‘bowtie’ is a diagram that visualizes the risk you are dealing with in just one, easy to understand the picture. The diagram is shaped like a bow-tie, creating a clear differentiation between proactive

114. Biological Hazard Examples

Biological Hazard Examples
• Human blood and blood products. ...
• Animal waste. ...
• Human bodily matter. ...
• Microbiological waste. ...
• Pathological waste. ...
• Sharps waste. ...
• Molds and yeasts. ...
• Organic material

115. Chemical hazards

Chemical hazards are mainly caused by the characteristics of chemical substances that may cause explosions, fires, or corrosions; or emit poisonous gases or mini particles. Often, chemical substances react negatively when exposed to, or mixed with, other materials or chemical substances. For instance, asbestos particles are usually dispersed in the atmosphere when moved.

116. routes of chemical exposure

There are several routes of chemical exposure as described below.
• Inhalation – that is breathing in toxic vapors or small chemical particles
• Absorption – such as direct exposure to the skin by touching a chemical substance without any protection such as wearing gloves.
• Injection – that is when a sharp contaminated object or needle accidentally penetrates a worker’s body (such as hand or foot)
• Ingestion – that is when toxins are accidentally swallowed

117. Asphyxiants

Asphyxiants: Chemical asphyxiants deprive the body of oxygen; interrupting the transfer and use of oxygen by the bloodstream. Asphyxiant Chemical Examples: Carbon monoxide and cyanide

118. Irritants

Irritants: Chemical hazards that are classified as irritants cause harm to the eyes, skin, or respiratory tract of a person. Irritants are either highly, moderately, or slightly water-soluble. The hazards can manifest as redness, rashes, inflammation, coughing, or hemorrhaging. Irritants are mostly short-term severe illnesses but can also have long-lasting side effects in some people. People can also have an allergic reaction to some of these chemical materials with long-lasting health impacts or even be fatal.

119. Corrosives

Corrosives: Chemical corrosives cause visible and/or irreversible changes to the composition of a material due to direct contact. Similarly, these can also cause a localized reaction in the human body at the point of contact. However, corrosive chemicals also have the potential to produce systemic chemical exposure away from the point of contact when mixed with other substances.

120. What is the Definition of Noise?

Unwanted sound, Sound is a varying pressure wave travelling through a medium.

121. Sensitizers

Sensitizers: Sensitizers are also known as allergens meaning they cause an allergic reaction in people who face repeated exposure over time to certain chemicals. Reactions to chemicals deemed as sensitizers vary from person to person and can be either acute or chronic. Chemical exposure can manifest as swelling of the airway or develop into dangerous illnesses such as lung disease. Some diseases such as asthma and contact dermatitis become common among people due to over-exposure to chemicals.

122. Carcinogens

Carcinogens: Carcinogens are cancer-causing chemical substances, and a small amount of such a chemical is enough to severely harm human health. The hazards of such chemical substances will only appear many years after exposure. There are over 200 known human carcinogens.

123. Mutagens

Mutagens: Chemicals classified as mutagens cause genetic changes to a cell’s DNA and RNA. Genetic changes can cause cancer, prevent normal biological functions, or may result in the malfunction of a particular organ. Examples: Benzene, ionizing radiation, and hydrogen peroxide

124. Reactive

Reactive: Chemical substances that cause a chemical hazard such as an explosion when mixed or combined with other chemical or non-chemical substances such as water or air.

125. Flammable

Flammable: Many chemicals are characterized as flammable as they can easily burn or ignite when exposed to oxygen.

126. Teratogens

Teratogens: Chemical teratogens can disrupt the normal development of a fetus causing birth defects and even the healthy advancement of pregnancy.

127. The main hazards of working with electricity

The main hazards of working with electricity are:
• electric shock and burns from contact with live parts
• injury from exposure to arcing, fire from faulty electrical equipment or installations
• explosion caused by unsuitable electrical apparatus or static electricity igniting flammable vapours or dusts, for example in a spray paint booth

128. Mechanical hazards

Mechanical hazards include:
• Crushing
• Shearing
• Cutting or severing
• Entanglement
• Drawing-in or trapping
• Impact
• Stabbing or puncture
• Friction or abrasion
• High-pressure fluid injection
• Mobile machinery

129. Dangerous noise levels

Safe and Unsafe Decibel Levels. “Noise above 70 dB over a prolonged period of time may start to damage your hearing. Loud noise above 120 dB can cause immediate harm to your ears. As people respond differently to noise, the exact level at which noise will cause damage is not certain for each person. However, the amount of damage caused by noise depends on the total amount of energy received over time and each person's susceptibility to hearing loss

130. Passive fire protection (PFP)

Passive fire protection (PFP) is defined, in the recently issued ISO standard (ISO, 1999), as 'a coating, cladding or free-standing system which, in the event of a fire, will provide thermal protection to restrict the rate at which heat is transmitted to the object or area being protected'.

131. Educational controls

Educational controls: These controls are based on the knowledge and skills of the employees or individuals performing the task. Effective control is implemented through individual and collective training that ensures performance to a standard.

132. Avoidance

Avoidance: These controls are applied when supervisors and managers take positive action to prevent contact or exposure with the identified hazard.

133. Physical controls

Physical controls: These controls may take the form of barriers and guards or signs to warn employees and others that a hazard exists. Additionally, special controller or supervisory personnel responsible for locating specific hazards fall into this category.

134. Criteria for Controls

To be effective, each control developed must meet the following criteria:
• Support. Availability of adequate personnel, equipment, supplies, and facilities necessary to implement suitable controls.
• Standards. Guidance and procedures for implementing a control are clear, practical, and specific.
• Training. Knowledge and skills are adequate to implement a control.
• Leadership. Supervisors and managers are competent to implement a control.
• Individual. Individual employees are sufficiently self-disciplined to implement a control measure.

135. The hierarchy of controls

The hierarchy of controls is a step-by-step approach to eliminating or reducing workplace hazards. It ranks controls from the most effective level of protection to the least effective level of protection. When choosing a control method, start from the top of the inverted pyramid. Assess the feasibility of the first layer of controls (elimination) before moving onto the second layer (substitution). Continue this process until you reach of the bottom of the pyramid and have identified as many controls as needed to that will adequately protect the worker from the hazard.

136. Elimination

Elimination is the process of removing the hazard from the workplace. It is the most effective way to control a risk because the hazard is no longer present. It is the preferred way to control a hazard and should be used whenever possible.

137. Substitution

Substitution is act of replacing something with another thing… in this case, a hazard is replaced with a less hazardous one. The hazards and risks associated with an alternative must be thoroughly assessed to determine if it is an appropriate replacement. Care must be taken to make sure that the new hazard is actually lower, and that one hazard is not being replaced with another that is just as harmful or more harmful.

138. Engineering controls

Engineering controls are methods that will remove the hazard at the source, before it comes in contact with the worker. Engineering controls can be built into the design of a plant, equipment, or process to minimize the hazard. Engineering controls are a very reliable way to control worker exposures as long as the controls are designed, used, and maintained properly.

139. Process control

Process control involves changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk. Monitoring should be done before and as well as after the change is implemented to make sure the changes did, in fact, control the hazard.

140. Enclosed equipment

An enclosure keeps a selected hazard "physically" away from the worker. Enclosed equipment, for example, is tightly sealed and it is typically only opened for cleaning or maintenance. Other examples include "glove boxes" (where a chemical is in a ventilated and enclosed space and the employee works with the material by using gloves that are built in), abrasive blasting cabinets, or remote-control devices. Care must be taken when the enclosure is opened for maintenance as exposure could occur if adequate precautions are not taken. The enclosure itself must be well maintained to prevent leaks.

141. Isolation of hazardous process

Isolation places the hazardous process "geographically" away from the majority of the workers. Common isolation techniques are to create a contaminant-free or noise-free booth either around the equipment or around the employee workstations.

142. Ventilation

Ventilation is a method of control that "adds" and "removes" air in the work environment. General or dilution ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. Local exhaust ventilation is designed to remove the contaminant at the source so it cannot disperse into the work space and it generally uses lower exhaust rates than general ventilation (general ventilation usually exchanges air in the entire room).

143. Administrative controls

Administrative controls involve developing procedures to ensure the work conducted in a way that minimizes the hazard. Examples include developing or changing policies, implementing or improving training and education, and developing or enhancing work practices and procedures.

144. Methods of administrative control

Methods of administrative control include:
• Using job-rotation schedules or a work-rest schedule that limit the amount of time an individual worker is exposed to a substance.
• Implementing a preventative maintenance program to keep equipment in proper working order
• Scheduling maintenance and other high exposure operations for times when few workers are present (such as evenings, weekends).
• Restricting access to a work area.
• Restricting the task to only those competent or qualified to perform the work.
• Using signs to warn workers of a hazard.

145. Education and Training

Employee education and training on how to conduct their work safely is a critical element of any complete workplace health and safety program. Training must cover not only how to do the job safely but it must also ensure that workers understand the hazards and risks of their job, and the controls in place to protect them. It must also provide them with information on how to protect themselves and co-workers.

146. Good Housekeeping

Good housekeeping is essential to prevent the accumulation of hazardous or toxic materials (e.g., build-up of dust or contaminant on ledges, or beams), or hazardous conditions (e.g., poor stockpiling).

147. Elements of safe work practices

Elements of safe work practices include: Developing and implementing safe work procedures or standard operating procedures.
• Training and education of employees about the operating procedures as well as other necessary workplace training (including WHMIS).
• Establishing and maintaining good housekeeping programs.
• Keeping equipment well maintained.
• Preparing and training for emergency response for incidents such as spills, fire, or employee injury.

148. Personal Hygiene Practices and Facilities

Personal hygiene practices are another effective way to reduce the amount of a hazardous material absorbed, ingested, or inhaled by a worker.
Examples of personal hygiene practices include:
• Washing hands after handling material and before eating, drinking or smoking.
• Avoiding touching lips, nose, and eyes with contaminated hands.
• No smoking, drinking, chewing gum or eating in the work areas - these activities should be permitted only in a "clean" area.
• Not storing hazardous products in the same refrigerator as food items.

149. Emergency Preparedness

Being prepare for emergencies means making sure that the necessary equipment and supplies are readily available and that employees know what to do when something unplanned happens such as a release, spill, fire, or injury. These procedures should be written and employees should have the opportunity to practice their emergency response skills regularly.

150. Personal protective equipment (PPE)

Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to anything workers wear to help protect them from a workplace hazard. The use of PPE as the main method to control exposures should be limited to situations where elimination, substitution, engineering, or administrative controls are not practicable

151. Employee and family assistance programs

It is designed to assist an employee in managing the impact of personal and work-related challenges that affect overall well-being and, inevitably, on-the-job performance.
Services available to employees include:
• Counseling & Therapy
• Financial Solutions
• Caregiving & Aging
• Legal Consultation referrals

152. Fatigue

Work-related factors may include long work hours, long hours of physical or mental activity, insufficient break time between shifts, changes to jobs or shift rotations, inadequate rest, excessive stress, having multiple jobs, or a combination of these factors.

153. Fatigue factors

Fatigue is increased by:
• dim lighting,
• limited visual acuity (i.e., due to weather),
• high temperatures,
• high noise,
• high comfort,
• tasks which must be sustained for long periods of time, and
• work tasks which are long, repetitive, paced, difficult, boring and monotonous.

154. Examples of Employee and family assistance programs

Examples of common programs are as follows:
• Stress reduction programs.
• Weight loss programs.
• Smoking cessation programs.
• Health risk assessments.
• Health screenings.
• Exercise programs and activities.
• Nutrition education.
• Vaccination clinics.

155. Examples of well-established techniques of marketing and changing behavior

using well-established techniques of marketing and changing behavior, such as the following:
• An attention-generating program rollout.
• A wellness program logo and slogans for various components of the program, such as "Every Body Walk Now," "Wellness Wednesday," "Recess" or "Time Out for Tai Chi."
• Visible endorsement and participation by upper management.
• Wellness education based on sound research.
• Persuasion of employees based on anecdotal situations.
• Sustaining the message and the program over several years.
• Multiple avenues of communication, such as e-mail, fliers and presentations.
• Repetition of the message. Keeping the message fresh with new information.

156. Return on investment (ROI)

Return on investment (ROI) or return on costs (ROC) is a ratio between net income (over a period) and investment (costs resulting from an investment of some resources at a point in time). A high ROI means the investment's gains compare favourably to its cost.

157. Design for procurement (DFP)

Design for procurement (DFP) is a concept that procurement professionals apply to enhance procurement activities for the new product that will improve short-term NPD performance and long-term product performance in a sustainable manner to include economic and environmental concerns.

158. Facility design

Facility design is the overall layout of your facility -- including the equipment, work stations, offices, fixtures, machinery, and more. It's an important component in your business's activities and facilities management

159. Human factors in design

Human factors in design refers to ergonomic and aesthetic factors that influence the design of products, systems, and environments. These factors are supported by the use of anthropometric (the measurement of the size and proportions of the human body), psychological, and sensory data gathering and analysis techniques

160. The Prevention through Design

The Prevention through Design National initiative is to prevent or reduce occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities through the inclusion of prevention considerations in all designs that impact workers.

161. Life safety

Life safety means the control and prevention of fire and other life-threatening conditions on a premises for the purpose of preserving human life. Fire safety systems are installed into buildings to help protect people and buildings from fires. They include but are not limited to portable fire extinguishers, sprinklers and fire extinguishing systems, fire alarms and their systems

162. Process safety

Process safety focuses on preventing fires, explosions and chemical accidents in chemical process facilities or other facilities dealing with hazardous materials such as refineries, and oil and gas production installations. Occupational safety and health primarily covers the management of personal safety

163. Safeguarding

Safeguarding: protective measures consisting of the use of specific technical means, called safeguards (guards, protective-devices), to protect workers from hazards that cannot be reasonably removed or sufficiently limited by design.

164. Methods of administrative control

Methods of administrative control include:
• Using job-rotation schedules or a work-rest schedule that limit the amount of time an individual worker is exposed to a substance.
• Implementing a preventative maintenance program to keep equipment in proper working order
• Scheduling maintenance and other high exposure operations for times when few workers are present (such as evenings, weekends).
• Restricting access to a work area.
• Restricting the task to only those competent or qualified to perform the work.
• Using signs to warn workers of a hazard.

165. Elements of safe work practices

Elements of safe work practices include:
• Developing and implementing safe work procedures or standard operating procedures.
• Training and education of employees about the operating procedures as well as other necessary workplace training (including WHMIS).
• Establishing and maintaining good housekeeping programs.
• Keeping equipment well maintained.
• Preparing and training for emergency response for incidents such as spills, fire, or employee injury.

166. Examples of personal hygiene practices

Examples of personal hygiene practices include:
• Washing hands after handling material and before eating, drinking or smoking.
• Avoiding touching lips, nose, and eyes with contaminated hands.
• No smoking, drinking, chewing gum or eating in the work areas - these activities should be permitted only in a "clean" area.
• Not storing hazardous products in the same refrigerator as food items.

167. PPE should only be used When?

PPE should only be used:
• as an interim (short term) measure before controls are implemented;
• where other controls are not available or adequate;
• during activities such as maintenance, clean up, and repair where pre-contact controls are not feasible or effective;
• during emergency situations.

168. PPE

PPE is considered as the last level of protection when all other methods are not available or possible. Before any decision is made to begin or to expand a PPE program, it is important to understand the underlying principles of protection strategies.

169. Two criteria need to be determined PPE

Once the need for PPE has been established, the next task is to select the proper type. Two criteria need to be determined:
• the degree of protection required, and
• the appropriateness of the equipment to the situation (including the practicality of the equipment being used and kept in good repair).

170. main elements of personal protective equipment (PPE)

When the hazard cannot be removed or controlled adequately, personal protective equipment (PPE) may be used. The main elements that must be considered are:
• protection of workers
• compliance with applicable laws / regulations / standards / guidelines
• compliance with internal company requirements
• technical feasibility

171. Match PPE to the hazard

There are no shortcuts to PPE selection. Choose the right PPE to match the hazard. On some jobs, the same task is performed throughout the entire job cycle, so it is easy to select proper PPE. In other instances, workers may be exposed to two or more different hazards.
A welder may require protection against welding gases, harmful light rays, molten metal and flying chips. In such instances, multiple protection is needed: a welding helmet, welders’ goggles and the appropriate respirator, or an air-supplied welding hood.

172. How to Consider physical comfort of PPE (ergonomics)

If a PPE device is unnecessarily heavy or poorly fitted it is unlikely that it will be worn. Note also that if a PPE device is unattractive or uncomfortable, or there is no ability for workers to choose among models, compliance is likely to be poor. When several forms of PPE are worn together, interactions must be kept in mind (e.g., will wearing eye wear interfere with the seal provided by ear muffs?). Use every opportunity to provide flexibility in the choice of PPE as long as it meets required legislation and standards.

173. CSA Standard Z94.3-15

In Canada, various standards exist and the most recent should be used for guidance in the selection process. For example, the CSA Standard Z94.3-15 “Eye and Face Protectors” outlines types of eye wear protectors recommended for particular work hazards.

174. Chain of command

At the top of the chain is the emergency scene commander, a trained employee who will issue orders to others during the emergency. This person might be a facility manager, emergency director, or some other supervisor.

175. Fatigue

Fatigue is often thought of as the state of feeling very tired, weary or sleepy resulting from various sources such as insufficient sleep, prolonged mental or physical work, or extended periods of stress or anxiety. Boring or repetitive tasks can intensify feelings of fatigue. Fatigue can be described as either acute or chronic.

176. Fatigue Mental state

Mental state:
1. Reduced mental capacity
2. Inattentive
3. Indecisive

177. Fatigue Physical state

Physical state:
• Physiological weakness or degradation
• Physically exhausted
• Weak

178. Fatigue Subjective state

Subjective state:
• Tired
• Drowsy
• Weary
• Sleepy
• Lethargic

179. Fatigue a Serious Issues

Fatigue is regarded as having an impact on work performance. Government of Alberta, Labour* reports that most incidents occur when people are more likely to want sleep - between midnight and 6 am, and between 1 to 3 pm. Government of Alberta, Labour also reports that fatigue affects people differently but it can increase a worker's hazard exposure by:
• reducing mental and physical functioning,
• impairing judgement and concentration,
• lowering motivation,
• slowing reaction time, and
• increasing risk-taking behaviour.

180. Signs and symptoms of fatigue

Signs and symptoms of fatigue can vary, and include:
• weariness,
• tiredness,
• sleepiness, including falling asleep against your will ("micro" sleeps),
• irritability,
• reduced alertness, concentration and memory,
• reduced ability to be productive,
• mentally tired,
• physically tired,
• lack of motivation,
• depression,
• boredom,
• giddiness,
• headaches,
• loss of appetite,
• digestive problems, and
• Increased susceptibility to illness.

181. A Fitness for Duty Assessment (FFD)

A Fitness for Duty Assessment (FFD) is a mental health evaluation in which a psychologist performs tests and provides feedback about an employee’s mental fitness to perform a specific job. These evaluations are usually done when a circumstance occurs that may impair an employee from successfully doing their job.

182. Caregiver strain

Caregiver strain: Caregiver strain is a multi-dimensional construct defined in terms of "burdens" in the caregivers' day-to-day lives, which can be attributed to the need to provide care or assistance to someone else who needs it

183. Mental health

Mental health is about how we think, feel and behave. Anxiety and depression are the most common mental health problems. They are often a reaction to a difficult life event, such as bereavement, but can also be caused by work-related issues.

184. Management Standards - The Standards identify six factors that cause stress at work

Management Standards provide a step-by-step process for tackling stress. They have been designed to be useful to all organizations, whatever the size or type. The Standards identify six factors that cause stress at work, help you think about whether they are present in your business, give you ideas on how to control them and produce an action plan. The six factors are:
• Demands – including issues such as workload, work patterns and the work environment
• Control – how much say the person has in the way they do their work
• Support – including the encouragement, sponsorship and resources provided by the organization, line management and colleagues
• Relationships – including promoting positive working to avoid conflict and dealing with unacceptable behavior
• Role – whether people understand their role within the organization and whether the organization ensures that they do not have conflicting roles
• Change – how organizational change (large or small) is managed and communicated

185. workload

Humans have limited capability for processing information (such as from displays, alarms, documentation and communications), holding items in memory, making decisions and performing tasks. Excess workload can result in human performance issues such as slower task performance and errors such as slips, lapses or mistakes. It should also be noted that underload can also lead to human performance issues such as boredom, loss of situation awareness and reduced alertness.

186. The primary purpose of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA)

The primary purpose of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) is to contribute to sustainable development through pollution prevention. It provides the legislative basis for a range of federal environmental and health protection programs.

187. Biological hazards (biohazards)

Biological hazards (biohazards) are substances that are biological in nature and pose a threat to the health of living organisms. Sources of biological hazards include bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and humans. These sources can cause a variety of health effects ranging from skin irritation and allergies to infections (e.g., tuberculosis, AIDS), cancer, and so on.

188. Health hazards

Health hazards: “These are properties of a chemical that have the potential to cause adverse health effects. Exposure sometimes happens through inhalation, skin contact or bodily function. Adverse health effects may be acute (short term) or chronic (long term).

189. GHS

Globally consonant System of Classification and Libeling of Chemicals (GHS) hazard categories, as well as a classification in Schedule half- dozen of the WHS laws.

190. acute health effects

Typical acute health effects embody headaches, nausea or instinctive reflex and skin corrosion, whereas chronic health effects embody respiratory illness, dermatitis, nerve injury or cancer.

191. Physicochemical hazards

Physicochemical hazards: These are physical or chemical properties of the substance, mixture or article that create risks to employees aside from health risks, as they are doing not occur because of the biological interaction of the chemical with individuals. They are through inappropriate handling or use and might usually lead to injury to individuals and/or injury to property as a result of the intrinsic physical hazard.

192. The main hazards of working with electricity

The main hazards of working with electricity are: electric shock and burns from contact with live parts, injury from exposure to arcing, fire from faulty electrical equipment or installations, explosion caused by unsuitable electrical apparatus or static electricity igniting flammable vapours or dusts, for example in a spray paint booth and Electric shocks can also lead to other types of injury, for example by causing a fall from ladders or scaffolds etc.

193. Ergonomics

Ergonomics is the process of designing or arranging workplaces, products and systems so that they fit the people who use them.

194. human factors’

Ergonomics (or ‘human factors’ as it is referred to in North America) is a branch of science that aims to learn about human abilities and limitations, and then apply this learning to improve people’s interaction with products, systems and environments.

195. The International Ergonomics Association definition of ergonomics

The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics as follows: Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.

196. “International Ergonomics Association”

One of the first professional societies in the field of ergonomics was the Ergonomics Research Society in the United Kingdom, which was started in 1949. This society later became the Ergonomics Society. In 1959, the European Productivity Agency’s steering committee on ergonomics became known as “International Ergonomics Association.

197. Heat of combustion

Heat of combustion: The amount of heat in calories evolved by the combustion of 1g weight of a substance.

198. Upper flammability limit

Upper flammability limit: The maximum concentration of a combustible substance capable of propagating a flame through a homogeneous combustible mixture. The upper flammability limit (UFL) is usually expressed in volume percent.

199. Lower flammability limit

Lower flammability limit: The lower end of the concentration range of a flammable solvent at a given temperature and pressure for which air/vapor mixtures can ignite. The lower flammability limit (LFL) is usually expressed in volume percent.

200. Flammable liquid

Flammable liquid: Any liquid having a flash point below 140°F and having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 psia at 100°F.

201. The flash point

Flash point: The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. The flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition. The flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition.

202. Combustion

Combustion is a chemical reaction that occurs between a fuel and an oxidizing agent that produces energy, usually in the form of heat and light. When a fuel is burned, the carbon reacts with the oxygen and can form either carbon monoxide (CO) or carbon dioxide (CO2).

203. Combustible liquid

Combustible liquid: Any liquid having a flash point at or above 140°F and below 200°F.

204. An explosion

An explosion is a sudden release of energy, causing a pressure blast wave. Usually it is the result, not the cause, of a sudden release of gas under high pressure.

205. Heat and energy propagation

Heat and energy propagation in a detonation process occurs via a shock wave front whereas, in a deflagration process, heat transfer happens by heat escaping from layer to layer in the medium.

206. Confined Vapor Cloud Explosion (CVCE)

Confined Vapor Cloud Explosion (CVCE): If a flammable vapor cloud is ignited in a container, e.g., a process vessel, or in a building so that it is confined. Pressure can build up until the containing walls rupture. If the results of a CVCE affect nearby plant or equipment, serious secondary explosions can follow.

207. Uncontrolled or Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion (UVCE)

Uncontrolled or Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion (UVCE): It results from the release of a considerable quantity of flammable gas or vapor into the atmosphere, and its subsequent ignition. Such an explosion can cause extensive damage, such as occurred at Flixborough in 1974. This is one of the most serious hazards in the process industries. Unconfined vapor clouds can deflagrate or detonate, but a deflagration is much more likely.

208. Ventilation

Ventilation ensures that any vapors given off from a spill, leak, or release from any process will be rapidly dispersed, preventing the formation of a vapor/air mixture above the LFL.

209. Ignition sources

Ignition sources must be removed from storage and handling areas for flammable materials. If the ignition source generates energy above the Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) for the combustible vapor or gas, then an explosion will occur.

210. Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE)

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE). A BLEVE involves a sudden release of vapor, containing liquid droplets, owing to the failure of a storage vessel. This occurs when a pressure vessel containing liquid is heated so that the metal loses strength and ruptures, typically as a result of exposure to fire. A BLEVE can occur with both flammable and non-flammable materials (e.g., water). The best- known type of BLEVE involves LPG (liquefied petroleum gas).

211. Containment prevents

Containment prevents the escape of flammable materials into the workplace which can release vapors and generate explosive mixtures.

212. Exchange of a flammable substance

Exchange of a flammable substance for a less flammable one will reduce the risk of formation of an explosive mixture. Flammable liquids with flash points well above room temperature will be unlikely to form explosive atmospheres under normal working conditions.

213. Separation of flammable substances

Separation of flammable substances from other processes and general storage areas by physical barriers, walls or partitions will contribute to a safer workplace by controlling the zone in which flammable atmospheres may be present.

214. Gravity

‘Gravity – defined in this context as the force of attraction by which bodies tend to fall towards the center of the earth – results in falls by people who have lost their balance for various reasons, as well as falls of unsecured objects’

215. Measurement of Gravity

Objects possess gravitational potential energy due to their position in a gravitational field. The most common use of gravitational potential energy is for an object near the surface of the Earth, where the gravitational acceleration can be assumed to be constant at approximately 9.8 m/s2.

216. The zero of gravitational potential energy

The zero of gravitational potential energy may be chosen. This means the potential energy at a height above that point is equal to the work required to lift an object to that height with no net change in kinetic energy. As the force required to lift is equal to its weight, the gravitational potential energy is equal to its weight times the height to which it is lifted (Nave, 2012)

217. Mechanical failures that have the potential to cause accidents

Mechanical failures that have the potential to cause accidents include:
• Power failure - total or partial input/output power failure
• Broken or damaged part - within the engine or machine due to poor quality metal part
• Fire breakout - within the engine or machine due to cooling failure or spark
• Explosion - due to high pressure or uncontrollable situation
• Fuel factor - poor quality or no fuel may lead to stop the engine
• Mechanical mismatch - due to timer or mechanical malfunction
• Linkage failure - shaft, gear, coupling, belt, chain broken or failure
• System leakage - in the pressurized air or fluid system such as hydraulic power
• Fair wear and tear - due to old age
• Control system failure - mechanical, electrical or electronic
• Circuit or program malfunction - due to printed circuit board or electronic component failure

218. Noise and vibration

Noise and vibration are mechanical vibrations propagating in gaseous and solid media. Noise and vibration differ in frequency of oscillations. Noise is an erratic combination of sounds of different strength and frequency; able to have an adverse effect on the body.

219. The source of noise

The source of noise is any process that causes local pressure changes or mechanical vibrations in harsh, watery or gaseous media. Sources of noise can be engines, pumps, compressors, turbines, pneumatic and electric tools, hammers, threshers, machine tools, centrifuges, silos and other installations that have moving parts.

220. Local vibration

The vibration is transmitted to the human body at the moment of contact with the vibrating object: when acting on the limbs, local vibration occurs, and on the whole body. Local vibration affects neuromuscular tissues and the musculoskeletal system and leads to spasms of peripheral vessels

221. prolonged and intense vibrations

With prolonged and intense vibrations, in some cases, a professional pathology develops (local vibration often leads to it): peripheral, cerebral or cerebral-peripheral vibrational disease. In the latter case, there are changes in cardiac activity, general excitement, or, conversely, inhibition, fatigue, the appearance of pain, a feeling of shaking of the internal

222. The whole-body vibration (WBV).

Workers can also be exposed to whole body vibration (WBV). WBV exposure occurs in occupations where workers are driving trucks, large earth moving vehicles, or where they are using hand tools where the amplitude of the vibration is great enough to be transmitted to other portions of the body, such as in workers using jack-hammers.

223. The main hazards from pressure

The main hazards are:
1. impact from the blast of an explosion or release of compressed liquid or gas
2. impact from parts of equipment that fail or any flying debris
3. contact with the released liquid or gas, such as steam
4. fire resulting from the escape of flammable liquids or gases

224. Principal causes of pressure-related incidents

The principal causes are:
• poor equipment and/or system design
• poor installation
• poor maintenance of equipment
• inadequate repairs or modifications
• an unsafe system of work
• operator error, poor training/supervision

225. Hazards identification techniques - Observation

Observation of work being done. An act or instance of noticing or perceiving An act or instance of regarding attentively or watching The faculty or habit of observing or noticing The information or record secured by such an act

226. Task Analysis

Identify and analyze the individual steps within a particular task. A task analysis is simply a list of logically ordered component behaviors in any given task

227. “4 Ps” structure

1. Premises (Access/escape, Housekeeping, Working environment)
2. Plant and substances (Machinery guarding, local exhaust ventilation, and Use/storage/separation of materials/chemicals)
3. Procedures (Permits-to-work., Use of PPEs, Procedures & Protocols followed)
4. People (Health surveillance, People’s behavior, Appropriate authorized person)

228. Checklists

Cover key issues to be monitored. A checklist is a tool that project managers use to stay organized. Checklists can help project managers keep track of project tasks, requirements, goals, and deadlines.

229. Employee Input

Involve employees with relevant experience and knowledge as they are likely to have the best understanding of the hazards; involvement also increases ‘ownership’ of the assessment and hopefully compliance with any control measures identified.

230. Hazards identification techniques - Incident Reports

Each company should maintain its own records of all accidents that have occurred.

231. Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)

A hazard and operability study ( HAZOP ) is a structured and systematic examination of a complex plan or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment. The intention of performing a HAZOP is to review the design to pick up design and engineering issues that may otherwise not have been found.

232. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)

Failure mode and effects analysis ( FMEA ; often written with "failure modes" in plural) is the process of reviewing as many components, assemblies, and subsystems as possible to identify potential failure modes in a system and their causes and effects.

233. Fault tree analysis (FTA)

Fault Tree Analysis is a graphic failure analysis tool used to deduct causes of undesired results and failures at the system level.

234. Key Steps in a Risk Assessment

Step 1: Identify the hazards.
Step 2: Decide who might be harmed and how.
Step 3: Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions.
Step 4: Record your findings and implement them.
Step 5: Review your assessment and update if necessary.

235. Risk Assessment - Quantitative

A measurement of magnitude is involved, e.g. there were four fatalities due to falls from a height over a 12-month period at Business X; the airborne concentration of formaldehyde in a workplace was measured as 13ppm.

236. Risk Assessment - Semi-Quantitative

Semi-quantitative risk assessments may also use a simple matrix to combine estimates of likelihood and consequence in order to place risks in rank order.

237. Acceptability/Tolerability of Risk

There are criteria by which a society decides which risks it is prepared to expect workers and members of the public to live with, and those it is not. Risks may be classified into three categories:

238. Abuse, aggression, or violence incident

Abuse, aggression, or violence is defined as ‘an incident in which employees feel they have been verbally abused, threatened or attacked in circumstances relating to their duties either in or out of work’. Employees should report incidents involving race, gender or gender identity, religion or belief, disability, sexuality, and age in line with the requirements of the Council’s Dignity at Work Policy.

239. People at the risk of violence

Those at increased risk are likely to be employees who:
• handle or collect money or valuables
• give advice or training
• work alone or away from a workplace
• carry out enforcement duties or inspections
• have contact with service users.

240. Aggression

Aggression has potentially damaging effect on an employee’s well-being of all categories of violence - actual physical attack, the threat of violence, and verbal abuse.

241. Bullying and harassment Definition

Bullying is usually seen as acts or verbal comments that could psychologically or 'mentally' hurt or isolate a person in the workplace. Sometimes, bullying can involve negative physical contact as well. Bullying usually involves repeated incidents or a pattern of behavior that is intended to intimidate, offend, degrade or humiliate a particular person or group of people. It has also been described as the assertion of power through aggression

242. Risk Assessment - Qualitative

No actual measurement is used. It involves describing the qualities, e.g. the airborne concentration was high or serious; the injury sustained was minor.

243. Factors Affecting Probability and Severity of Risk

The likelihood or probability of the event occurring; and the consequence or harm realized if the event takes place. This is usually expressed as: Risk = Likelihood (or Probability) × Consequence (or Harm)

244. Tolerable - Risks

Tolerable - Risks that fall between the acceptable and unacceptable. Tolerability does not mean acceptable but means that society is prepared to endure such risks because of the benefits they give and because further risk reduction is grossly out of proportion in terms of time, cost, etc.

245. Workplace violence and aggression

Workplace violence and aggression is when a person is abused, threatened or assaulted at the workplace or while they’re working. It can cause both physical and psychological harm, making it a risk to health and safety.

246. types of violence

All types of violence are unacceptable. This includes:
Physical attack - whether the visible injury occurs or not
Animal attack - when an animal is used as a threat
Verbal abuse - when an employee feels threatened or intimidated and the abuse is personally directed. This also includes cyber-aggression through texts, email messages, or social networking sites Attack or damage to property or belongings of the employee Any work-related incident involving an employee, or their family, happens away from the workplace.

247. Bullying and harassment Psychosomatic symptoms

Psychosomatic symptoms such as:
• Stomach pains.
• Headaches.
• Panic or anxiety, especially about going to work.
• Family tension and stress.
• Inability to concentrate.
• Low morale and productivity.

248. People who are the targets of bullying

People who are the targets of bullying may experience a range of effects. These reactions include:
• Shock.
• Anger.
• Feelings of frustration and/or helplessness.
• Increased sense of vulnerability.
• Loss of confidence.
• Physical symptoms such as:
• Inability to sleep.
• Loss of appetite.

249. Bullying affects

Bullying affects the overall "health" of an organization. An "unhealthy" workplace can have many effects. In general, these effects include:
• Increased absenteeism.
• Increased turnover.
• Increased stress.
• Increased costs for employee assistance programs (EAPs), recruitment, etc.
• Increased risk for incidents.
• Decreased productivity and motivation.
• Decreased morale.
• Reduced corporate image and customer confidence.
• Poor customer service

250. What is the two important characteristics of Noise?

- The commonly quoted frequency range for adults is 20Hz-20kHz
- Loudness is measured in logarithmic Decibel (dB) scale. A scale that is corrected for lower frequencies (human ear is less sensitive to lower frequencies) measure sound in dBA.