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ASP 50 Flashcards

1. Epicondylitis ("Tennis Elbow")

1. Caused by jerky, throwing motions
2. Tendons on outside elbow injured or strained

2. Nomenclature

Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terminology used in scientific and any other disciplines.

3. state of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

4. Neutron degeneracy

Neutron degeneracy is analogous to electron degeneracy and is demonstrated in neutron stars, which are partially supported by the pressure from a degenerate neutron gas

5. Matter waves

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality. All matter exhibits wave-like behavior. For example, a beam of electrons can be diffracted just like a beam of light or a water wave. In most cases, however, the wavelength is too small to have a practical impact on day-to-day activities.

6. Tendinitis

Inflammation of tendons associated with repeated moving, bending

7. Trigger Finger

Finger movement not smooth - snaps or jerks

8. White Finger

- Insufficient blood supply causes fingers to become pale
- Arteries closed due to vasospasms triggered by VIBRATIONS
- Working in the cold, working with jackhammers, etc

9. Ergonomics Program Steps/Factors

- All personnel represented on ergo team (labour, management, engineering, safety)
- Training
- Identifying existing or potential problems
- Evaluate risk factors
- Design and implement
- Monitor Effectiveness of corrections

10. Workstation Design (10 Factors)

1. Ensure PROPER MATCH between facility and operator
2. Task design and work DESIGN INTERRELATED
- Forces kept to less than 30% of maximal forces
- Up to 50% acceptable for short durations
- Static forces kept to less than 15% of maximal forces
3. Use best MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
4. Foot controls OK for seated workers NOT for standing workers
5. Maintain proper SITTING HEIGHT
6. Permit CHANGE of POSTURE
7. Accommodate LARGE OPERATORS in design
8. BENCH Height
- Sitting 50cm - 70cm
- Standing 89cm
9. Controls and computer screens placed in VISUAL FIELD
10 INSTRUCT and TRAIN operators to use good working posture

11. Standing Work Heights (Delicate, Light, Heavy)

Delicate work - 2"-4" above elbow
- Light work - 2"-4" below elbow
- Heavy work - 6"-16" below elbow

12. REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) (Bag it, tag it) Steps

- Looks at entire body as you do a task - Steps
1. Observe the task
2. Fill out a checklist
3. Compute Scores
4. Compare
5. Interview and Observation
- Based on
- The most difficult postures and work tasks
- Posture sustained for longest period of time
- Posture where highest workloads occur

13. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment)

Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a survey method developed for use in ergonomic investigations of workplaces where work related upper limb disorders are reported. RULA is a screening tool that assesses biomechanical and postural loading on the whole body with particular attention to the neck, trunk and upper limbs. Very similar to REBA - see REBA for steps

14. REBA/RULA Pros/Cons

Pros:
- User Friendly
- Advanced Degrees/special equipment not required
Cons:
- Does not consider duration of task - Only allows for looking at one point in time or worst-case scenario
- Must use representative postures

15. System Safety

- Systematic approach to detect deficiencies in system components
- Incorporate safety devices
- Provide warnings
- Develop procedures/training

16. System Safety Analysis (What-if, HAZOP)

- What-if Analysis: INFORMAL investigation introducing and evaluating hypotheticals
- Haz-OP: FORMAL study examining potential deviations from design conditions that could create problems/hazards
- Both frequently a TEAM EFFORT

17. FMEA (analysis)

- Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
- Looks to potential equipment failures - traced to predict effects
- Analysis leads to critical items list: What are the worst hazards? How to prioritize?

18. STEP analysis

- Simultaneous Timed Events Plotting
- Looks at events from time or sequence perspective

19. MORT

- Management Oversight and Risk Tree
- Identifies risks and refers to proper management

20. the unit of measurement of momentum

In the International System of Units (SI), the unit of measurement of momentum is the kilogram metre per second (kg⋅m/s), which is equivalent to the newton-second.

21. quantum field theory

In quantum field theory, correlation functions, often referred to as correlators or Green's functions, are vacuum expectation values of time-ordered products of field operators.

22. An electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field produced by moving electric charges.[1] It is the field described by classical electrodynamics (a classical field theory) and is the classical counterpart to the quantized electromagnetic field tensor in quantum electrodynamics (a quantum field theory).

23. quantum vacuum state

In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.

24. Energy Trace and Barrier Analysis (Part of MORT)

- Incident: unwanted energy flow from inadequate barriers resulting WITHOUT adverse consequences
- Accident: Same but WITH adverse consequences

25. Fault Tree Analysis - Event Types

- Four Event Types:
- Fault Event: Rectangle
- Basic Event: Circle
- Undeveloped Event: Diamond
- Normal Event: House Shape - probability close to 1

26. Fault Tree Analysis - "And" gates; "Or" gates

- "And Gate": A and B both need to occur to lead to C
- A x B = C
- Bullet shape
- "Or Gate": A or B needs to occur to lead to C
- A+B=C
- Looks kind of like an oar (Curved semicircle)
See p. 164-165 for examples

27. Aims of Industrial Hygiene

1. Anticipate
2. Recognize
3. Evaluate
4. Control
Health Hazards

28. TLVs (health hazards)

- Threshold Limit Values
- GUIDELINES in controlling hazards NOT in regulations
- Level of exposure a typical worker can experience without adverse health effects
- Based on industrial experience and lab tests

29. TLV-TWA

- Time Weighted Average
- 8-hour workday
- 40-hour work week
- Nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed DAY AFTER DAY without adverse effect

30. TLV-STEL

- Short Term Exposure Limit
- Workers can be exposed continuously for a SHORT PERIOD OF TIME without: Irritation
Chronic/irreversible tissue damage Narcosis (stupor, drowsiness, unconsciousness)
- No longer than 15 MINUTES
- No more than 4 TIMES A DAY
- 60 MINUTES BETWEEN exposures

31. OSHA PELs

- Permissible Exposure Limit
- REGULATION
- Based on TLVs from 1968

32. Ceiling Limit

Concentration should not be exceeded at ANY time

33. Particulate Matter Size Categories

- Inhalable - less than or equal to 100 μm (micro meters)
- Thoracic - less than or equal to 10 micrometers
- These get a little farther into the throat but not far enough to cause any damage
- Respirable - less than or equal to 4 micrometers
- These get far down enough to cause damage

34. Pump and Filter Sampling Method

- Measures for total dust
- Pulls air through filter
- Filter sent to lab to be weighed - Gravimetric method

35. Cyclone Sampling Method

- Used for RESPIRABLE dust
- Uses pump and filter as well
- Cyclone system separates smaller particulate from larger
- Placed in the breathing zone - around face

36. Direct Reading Dust Monitor (Miniram)

- Scatters light in a room and uses to take a reading for dust

37. Photoionization Detector (PID)

- Used to test for amount and class of chemicals in the air
- Immediate qualitative results
- IF you know the individual contaminants you can get quantitative results

38. PID Disadvantages

Poor selectivity
- Adversely affected by: humidity, particulates, hot/corrosive atmospheres
- Must be recalibrated when lamp ages/is contaminated

39. Gas Detector Tubes

- Specific volume of air drawn through tube with hand pump
- In tube you have chemicals that will react with the things you are looking for
- Color changes proportional to concentration

40. Combustible Gas Detector

- Measures combustible gases as a percentage of the lower flammable limit or lower explosive limit (LEL)
- Called a Wheatstone Bridge This is what gas is burned across Part of the combustible gas detector
- Alarm sounds at 10% LEL

41. Absorbents (impinger)

LIQUID media absorbs air with contaminant
- Sample drawn through liquid and gas absorbed in liquid
- Liquid analyzed in lab

42. Adsorbents

- SOLID material that retains chemical molecules
Activated carbon most common
- Tube sent to lab for analysis
- Adsorbents can be used:
Actively - air being pulled through media.
Passively - media being worn etc.
- Good for: hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohol, glycol ethers

43. Active Sampling

Two sections: collection adsorbent and breakthrough adsorbent

44. Breakthrough

- Essentially contamination of sample
- High temperature
- Migration of Chemicals

45. Diffusion Sampling

- Passive sampling
- Sample rate determined by Fick's Law - this has been on test
- Uses same media as solid sorbent tubes
- Less obtrusive to the wearer

46. Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration, or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by radiation.

47. Half-life

Half-life (symbol t½) is the time required for a quantity (of substance) to reduce to half of its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo radioactive decay or how long stable atoms survive. The term is also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential (or, rarely, non-exponential) decay.

48. The doubling time

The doubling time is the time it takes for a population to double in size/value. It is applied to population growth, inflation, resource extraction, consumption of goods, compound interest, the volume of malignant tumours, and many other things that tend to grow over time. When the relative growth rate (not the absolute growth rate) is constant, the quantity undergoes exponential growth and has a constant doubling time or period, which can be calculated directly from the growth rate.

49. Biological half-life

Biological half-life (also known as elimination half-life, pharmacologic half-life) is the time taken for concentration of a biological substance (such as a medication) to decrease from its maximum concentration

50. Biological Air Sampling

- Uses pump - air drawn through media
- Collects colony forming units
- Count colonies that grow

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