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CRSP 50 Flashcards

1. Fatigue

Fatigue is often thought of as the state of feeling very tired, weary or sleepy resulting from various sources such as insufficient sleep, prolonged mental or physical work, or extended periods of stress or anxiety. Boring or repetitive tasks can intensify feelings of fatigue. Fatigue can be described as either acute or chronic.

2. Fatigue Mental state

Mental state:
1. Reduced mental capacity
2. Inattentive
3. Indecisive

3. Fatigue Physical state

Physical state:
• Physiological weakness or degradation
• Physically exhausted
• Weak

4. Fatigue Subjective state

Subjective state:
• Tired
• Drowsy
• Weary
• Sleepy
• Lethargic

5. Fatigue a Serious Issues

Fatigue is regarded as having an impact on work performance. Government of Alberta, Labour* reports that most incidents occur when people are more likely to want sleep - between midnight and 6 am, and between 1 to 3 pm. Government of Alberta, Labour also reports that fatigue affects people differently but it can increase a worker's hazard exposure by:
• reducing mental and physical functioning,
• impairing judgement and concentration,
• lowering motivation,
• slowing reaction time, and
• increasing risk-taking behaviour.

6. Signs and symptoms of fatigue

Signs and symptoms of fatigue can vary, and include:
• weariness,
• tiredness,
• sleepiness, including falling asleep against your will ("micro" sleeps),
• irritability,
• reduced alertness, concentration and memory,
• reduced ability to be productive,
• mentally tired,
• physically tired,
• lack of motivation,
• depression,
• boredom,
• giddiness,
• headaches,
• loss of appetite,
• digestive problems, and
• Increased susceptibility to illness.

7. A Fitness for Duty Assessment (FFD)

A Fitness for Duty Assessment (FFD) is a mental health evaluation in which a psychologist performs tests and provides feedback about an employee’s mental fitness to perform a specific job. These evaluations are usually done when a circumstance occurs that may impair an employee from successfully doing their job.

8. Caregiver strain

Caregiver strain: Caregiver strain is a multi-dimensional construct defined in terms of "burdens" in the caregivers' day-to-day lives, which can be attributed to the need to provide care or assistance to someone else who needs it

9. Mental health

Mental health is about how we think, feel and behave. Anxiety and depression are the most common mental health problems. They are often a reaction to a difficult life event, such as bereavement, but can also be caused by work-related issues.

10. Management Standards - The Standards identify six factors that cause stress at work

Management Standards provide a step-by-step process for tackling stress. They have been designed to be useful to all organizations, whatever the size or type. The Standards identify six factors that cause stress at work, help you think about whether they are present in your business, give you ideas on how to control them and produce an action plan. The six factors are:
• Demands – including issues such as workload, work patterns and the work environment
• Control – how much say the person has in the way they do their work
• Support – including the encouragement, sponsorship and resources provided by the organization, line management and colleagues
• Relationships – including promoting positive working to avoid conflict and dealing with unacceptable behavior
• Role – whether people understand their role within the organization and whether the organization ensures that they do not have conflicting roles
• Change – how organizational change (large or small) is managed and communicated

11. workload

Humans have limited capability for processing information (such as from displays, alarms, documentation and communications), holding items in memory, making decisions and performing tasks. Excess workload can result in human performance issues such as slower task performance and errors such as slips, lapses or mistakes. It should also be noted that underload can also lead to human performance issues such as boredom, loss of situation awareness and reduced alertness.

12. The primary purpose of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA)

The primary purpose of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) is to contribute to sustainable development through pollution prevention. It provides the legislative basis for a range of federal environmental and health protection programs.

13. Biological hazards (biohazards)

Biological hazards (biohazards) are substances that are biological in nature and pose a threat to the health of living organisms. Sources of biological hazards include bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and humans. These sources can cause a variety of health effects ranging from skin irritation and allergies to infections (e.g., tuberculosis, AIDS), cancer, and so on.

14. Health hazards

Health hazards: “These are properties of a chemical that have the potential to cause adverse health effects. Exposure sometimes happens through inhalation, skin contact or bodily function. Adverse health effects may be acute (short term) or chronic (long term).

15. GHS

Globally consonant System of Classification and Libeling of Chemicals (GHS) hazard categories, as well as a classification in Schedule half- dozen of the WHS laws.

16. acute health effects

Typical acute health effects embody headaches, nausea or instinctive reflex and skin corrosion, whereas chronic health effects embody respiratory illness, dermatitis, nerve injury or cancer.

15. GHS

Globally consonant System of Classification and Libeling of Chemicals (GHS) hazard categories, as well as a classification in Schedule half- dozen of the WHS laws.

16. acute health effects

Typical acute health effects embody headaches, nausea or instinctive reflex and skin corrosion, whereas chronic health effects embody respiratory illness, dermatitis, nerve injury or cancer.

17. Physicochemical hazards

Physicochemical hazards: These are physical or chemical properties of the substance, mixture or article that create risks to employees aside from health risks, as they are doing not occur because of the biological interaction of the chemical with individuals. They are through inappropriate handling or use and might usually lead to injury to individuals and/or injury to property as a result of the intrinsic physical hazard.

18. The main hazards of working with electricity

The main hazards of working with electricity are: electric shock and burns from contact with live parts, injury from exposure to arcing, fire from faulty electrical equipment or installations, explosion caused by unsuitable electrical apparatus or static electricity igniting flammable vapours or dusts, for example in a spray paint booth and Electric shocks can also lead to other types of injury, for example by causing a fall from ladders or scaffolds etc.

19. Ergonomics

Ergonomics is the process of designing or arranging workplaces, products and systems so that they fit the people who use them.

20. human factors’

Ergonomics (or ‘human factors’ as it is referred to in North America) is a branch of science that aims to learn about human abilities and limitations, and then apply this learning to improve people’s interaction with products, systems and environments.

21. The International Ergonomics Association definition of ergonomics

The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics as follows: Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.

22. “International Ergonomics Association”

One of the first professional societies in the field of ergonomics was the Ergonomics Research Society in the United Kingdom, which was started in 1949. This society later became the Ergonomics Society. In 1959, the European Productivity Agency’s steering committee on ergonomics became known as “International Ergonomics Association.

23. Heat of combustion

Heat of combustion: The amount of heat in calories evolved by the combustion of 1g weight of a substance.

24. Upper flammability limit

Upper flammability limit: The maximum concentration of a combustible substance capable of propagating a flame through a homogeneous combustible mixture. The upper flammability limit (UFL) is usually expressed in volume percent.

25. Lower flammability limit

Lower flammability limit: The lower end of the concentration range of a flammable solvent at a given temperature and pressure for which air/vapor mixtures can ignite. The lower flammability limit (LFL) is usually expressed in volume percent.

26. Flammable liquid

Flammable liquid: Any liquid having a flash point below 140°F and having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 psia at 100°F.

27. The flash point

Flash point: The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. The flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition. The flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition.

28. Combustion

Combustion is a chemical reaction that occurs between a fuel and an oxidizing agent that produces energy, usually in the form of heat and light. When a fuel is burned, the carbon reacts with the oxygen and can form either carbon monoxide (CO) or carbon dioxide (CO2).

29. Combustible liquid

Combustible liquid: Any liquid having a flash point at or above 140°F and below 200°F.

30. An explosion

An explosion is a sudden release of energy, causing a pressure blast wave. Usually it is the result, not the cause, of a sudden release of gas under high pressure.

31. Heat and energy propagation

Heat and energy propagation in a detonation process occurs via a shock wave front whereas, in a deflagration process, heat transfer happens by heat escaping from layer to layer in the medium.

32. Confined Vapor Cloud Explosion (CVCE)

Confined Vapor Cloud Explosion (CVCE): If a flammable vapor cloud is ignited in a container, e.g., a process vessel, or in a building so that it is confined. Pressure can build up until the containing walls rupture. If the results of a CVCE affect nearby plant or equipment, serious secondary explosions can follow.

33. Uncontrolled or Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion (UVCE)

Uncontrolled or Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion (UVCE): It results from the release of a considerable quantity of flammable gas or vapor into the atmosphere, and its subsequent ignition. Such an explosion can cause extensive damage, such as occurred at Flixborough in 1974. This is one of the most serious hazards in the process industries. Unconfined vapor clouds can deflagrate or detonate, but a deflagration is much more likely.

34. Ventilation

Ventilation ensures that any vapors given off from a spill, leak, or release from any process will be rapidly dispersed, preventing the formation of a vapor/air mixture above the LFL.

35. Ignition sources

Ignition sources must be removed from storage and handling areas for flammable materials. If the ignition source generates energy above the Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) for the combustible vapor or gas, then an explosion will occur.

36. Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE)

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE). A BLEVE involves a sudden release of vapor, containing liquid droplets, owing to the failure of a storage vessel. This occurs when a pressure vessel containing liquid is heated so that the metal loses strength and ruptures, typically as a result of exposure to fire. A BLEVE can occur with both flammable and non-flammable materials (e.g., water). The best- known type of BLEVE involves LPG (liquefied petroleum gas).

37. Containment prevents

Containment prevents the escape of flammable materials into the workplace which can release vapors and generate explosive mixtures.

38. Exchange of a flammable substance

Exchange of a flammable substance for a less flammable one will reduce the risk of formation of an explosive mixture. Flammable liquids with flash points well above room temperature will be unlikely to form explosive atmospheres under normal working conditions.

39. Separation of flammable substances

Separation of flammable substances from other processes and general storage areas by physical barriers, walls or partitions will contribute to a safer workplace by controlling the zone in which flammable atmospheres may be present.

40. Gravity

‘Gravity – defined in this context as the force of attraction by which bodies tend to fall towards the center of the earth – results in falls by people who have lost their balance for various reasons, as well as falls of unsecured objects’

41. Measurement of Gravity

Objects possess gravitational potential energy due to their position in a gravitational field. The most common use of gravitational potential energy is for an object near the surface of the Earth, where the gravitational acceleration can be assumed to be constant at approximately 9.8 m/s2.

42. The zero of gravitational potential energy

The zero of gravitational potential energy may be chosen. This means the potential energy at a height above that point is equal to the work required to lift an object to that height with no net change in kinetic energy. As the force required to lift is equal to its weight, the gravitational potential energy is equal to its weight times the height to which it is lifted (Nave, 2012)

43. Mechanical failures that have the potential to cause accidents

Mechanical failures that have the potential to cause accidents include:
• Power failure - total or partial input/output power failure
• Broken or damaged part - within the engine or machine due to poor quality metal part
• Fire breakout - within the engine or machine due to cooling failure or spark
• Explosion - due to high pressure or uncontrollable situation
• Fuel factor - poor quality or no fuel may lead to stop the engine
• Mechanical mismatch - due to timer or mechanical malfunction
• Linkage failure - shaft, gear, coupling, belt, chain broken or failure
• System leakage - in the pressurized air or fluid system such as hydraulic power
• Fair wear and tear - due to old age
• Control system failure - mechanical, electrical or electronic
• Circuit or program malfunction - due to printed circuit board or electronic component failure

44. Noise and vibration

Noise and vibration are mechanical vibrations propagating in gaseous and solid media. Noise and vibration differ in frequency of oscillations. Noise is an erratic combination of sounds of different strength and frequency; able to have an adverse effect on the body.

45. The source of noise

The source of noise is any process that causes local pressure changes or mechanical vibrations in harsh, watery or gaseous media. Sources of noise can be engines, pumps, compressors, turbines, pneumatic and electric tools, hammers, threshers, machine tools, centrifuges, silos and other installations that have moving parts.

46. Local vibration

The vibration is transmitted to the human body at the moment of contact with the vibrating object: when acting on the limbs, local vibration occurs, and on the whole body. Local vibration affects neuromuscular tissues and the musculoskeletal system and leads to spasms of peripheral vessels

47. prolonged and intense vibrations

With prolonged and intense vibrations, in some cases, a professional pathology develops (local vibration often leads to it): peripheral, cerebral or cerebral-peripheral vibrational disease. In the latter case, there are changes in cardiac activity, general excitement, or, conversely, inhibition, fatigue, the appearance of pain, a feeling of shaking of the internal

48. The whole-body vibration (WBV).

Workers can also be exposed to whole body vibration (WBV). WBV exposure occurs in occupations where workers are driving trucks, large earth moving vehicles, or where they are using hand tools where the amplitude of the vibration is great enough to be transmitted to other portions of the body, such as in workers using jack-hammers.

49. The main hazards from pressure

The main hazards are:
1. impact from the blast of an explosion or release of compressed liquid or gas
2. impact from parts of equipment that fail or any flying debris
3. contact with the released liquid or gas, such as steam
4. fire resulting from the escape of flammable liquids or gases

50. Principal causes of pressure-related incidents

The principal causes are:
• poor equipment and/or system design
• poor installation
• poor maintenance of equipment
• inadequate repairs or modifications
• an unsafe system of work
• operator error, poor training/supervision

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