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CRST 100 Flashcards

1. Health promotion and disease prevention programs

Health promotion and disease prevention programs focus on keeping people healthy. Health promotion programs aim to engage and empower individuals and communities to choose healthy behaviors, and make changes that reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases and other morbidities.

2. Health promotion

Defined by the World Health Organization, health promotion: “enables people to increase control over their own health. It covers a wide range of social and environmental interventions that are designed to benefit and protect individual people’s health and quality of life by addressing and preventing the root causes of ill health, not just focusing on treatment and cure.”

3. What is in immunization?

Immunization is the process of giving a vaccine to a person to protect them against disease. Immunity (protection) by immunization is similar to the immunity a person would get from disease, but instead of getting the disease you get a vaccine. This is what makes vaccines such powerful medicine. there are five main types of vaccines: attenuated (live) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, toxoid vaccines, subunit vaccines, and conjugate vaccines.

4. Personal protective equipment,

Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as “PPE”, is equipment worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards. Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot and eye protection, protective hearing devices (earplugs, muffs) hard hats, respirators and full body suits.

5. What is hand hygiene?

Hand hygiene is a way of cleaning one's hands that substantially reduces potential pathogens (harmful microorganisms) on the hands. Hand hygiene is considered a primary measure for reducing the risk of transmitting infection among patients and health care personnel.

6. Medical Screening

Screening can detect a problem early, before you have any symptoms. Finding out about a problem early can mean that treatment is more effective. Finding out you have a health problem or an increased chance of a health problem can help people make better informed decisions about their health.

7. The Employee and Family Assistance Program (EFAP)

The Employee and Family Assistance Program (EFAP) is a confidential and voluntary counselling support service that provides you and your family with the help you need to resolve a wide range of personal, work, health or life issues. EAPs usually offer services, such as employee education, individual assessments, organizational assessments, management consultation, referrals to treatment, and short-term counseling.

8. Basic wellness programs

A program intended to improve and promote health and fitness that's usually offered through the work place, although insurance plans can offer them directly to their enrollees. The program allows your employer or plan to offer you premium discounts, cash rewards, gym memberships, and other incentives to participate.

9. Stress management

Stress management offers a range of strategies to help you better deal with stress and difficulty (adversity) in your life. Managing stress can help you lead a more balanced, healthier life. Stress is an automatic physical, mental and emotional response to a challenging event. It's a normal part of everyone's life.

10. Physical fitness

Physical fitness involves the performance of the heart and lungs, and the muscles of the body. And, since what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds, fitness influences to some degree qualities such as mental alertness and emotional stability.

11. Weight management

Weight management refers to behaviors, techniques, and physiological processes that contribute to a person's ability to attain and maintain a healthy weight. Most weight management techniques encompass long-term lifestyle strategies that promote healthy eating and daily physical activity.

12. What is a return to work?

A return to work meeting is often just an informal chat between an employee and their line manager. These meetings are sometimes called return to work interviews.

13. Disability management programs

Disability management programs provide a structured agreement between management and workers that, regardless of the cause of an injury or illness, facilitates early return to work without jeopardizing the health of the employee. Workplace-based programs minimize the economic, human and social costs of disability.

14. Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation is defined as “a set of interventions designed to optimize functioning and reduce disability in individuals with health conditions in interaction with their environment”. Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also known as physiatrist, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to people with physical impairments or disabilities.

15. Modified work

Modified work allows injured workers to return to work at the earliest opportunity, can aid in overall recovery and reduce the cost of injury or illness. You can positively impact your premiums by providing your worker with a suitable and timely return to modified work.

16. Substance use disorder (SUD)

Substance use disorder (SUD) is a mental health condition in which a person has a problematic pattern of substance use that causes distress and/or impairs their life. SUD exists on a spectrum and may be mild, moderate or severe. It typically involves an overpowering desire to use the substance, increased tolerance to the substance and/or withdrawal symptoms when you stop taking the substance. A person can have more than one substance use disorder at a time, such as alcohol use disorder and cocaine use disorder. Substance use disorder can significantly impact your health, relationships and overall quality of life. It can also be life-threatening. It’s crucial to seek help as soon as you develop signs of SUD.

17. Fatigue effects on worker health and performance

People who are fatigued are more easily distracted, are less able to concentrate, tend to forget things more easily, take longer to solve problems, make more mistakes, have slower reaction times, and take more risks than they might otherwise. At the extreme, they might fall asleep while operating a vehicle!

18. What are the 3 types of fatigue?

There are three types of fatigue: transient, cumulative, and circadian: Transient fatigue is acute fatigue brought on by extreme sleep restriction or extended hours awake within 1 or 2 days.

19. The psychosocial working environment

The psychosocial working environment is a collective term that covers the interaction between people in a workplace, the work of the individual and its impact on the employee, organisational conditions and the culture of the organisation.

20. Work-life balance

Work-life balance is typically defined as the amount of time you spend doing your job versus the amount of time you spend with loved ones or pursuing personal interests and hobbies. When work demands more of your time or attention, you will have less time to handle your other responsibilities or passions.

21. Work-life integration

Work-life integration—or the synergistic blending of our personal and professional responsibilities—has become an increasingly popular concept. From this perspective, work is simply one aspect of our lives, which needs to be considered alongside other important concerns, such as our home and family lives, our community, and our personal well-being. Rather than resembling a scale with two competing sides, work-life integration more resembles a Venn diagram of overlapping interests.

22. Internal Response System (IRS),

The internal responsibility system is the underlying philosophy of the occupational health and safety legislation in all Canadian jurisdictions. Its foundation is that everyone in the workplace - both workers and employers - is responsible for his or her own safety and for the safety of co-workers.

23. Due diligence

Due diligence looks at what was done before an accident occurred, not what was done after. Under Canadian occupational health and safety legislation, everyone responsible for health and safety must ensure that all precautions reasonable under the circumstances are taken.

24. Criminal liability,

If you are criminally liable, you are likely to be held responsible for breaking the law - whether it be potential or actual responsibility. Criminal liability is considered to determine whether a person will be charged and sentenced.

25. General duty clause

One of the challenging provisions in every Canadian occupational health and safety statute is the "general duty clause". This is a provision placing duties on employers, and sometimes supervisors, as in Ontario, to take "every precaution reasonable in the circumstances for the protection of a worker".

26. Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Act

The purpose of the Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Act and Regulations is to promote public safety when dangerous goods are being handled, offered for transport or transported by road, rail, air, or water (marine). TDG also establishes safety requirements.

27. The Hazardous Products Act (HPA)

The Hazardous Products Act (HPA) requires suppliers of hazardous products to communicate the hazards associated with their products via product labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) as a condition of sale and importation for workplace use.

28. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act

The Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 is an act of the 36th Parliament of Canada, whose goal is to contribute to sustainable development through pollution prevention and to protect the environment, human life and health from the risks associated with toxic substances.


The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) is Canada's national hazard communication standard. The key elements of the system are hazard classification, cautionary labelling of containers, the provision of safety data sheets (SDSs) and worker education and training programs.

30. GHS chemical hazard classification

GHS uses three hazard classes: Health Hazards, Physical Hazards and Environmental Hazards. These aren't required by OSHA. Health hazards present dangers to human health (i.e. breathing or vision) while physical hazards cause damage to the body (like skin corrosion).

31. Supervisor key Safety Duties

Primary responsibility: safely direct work assigned by the employer. Ensure employees comply with the Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act and regulations. Take every reasonable precaution to ensure the health and safety of employees. Inform employees of the hazards associated with their work.

32. A Joint Health and Safety Committee (JHSC)

A Joint Health and Safety Committee (JHSC) is composed of worker and employer representatives. Together, their goal is to be mutually committed to improving health and safety in the workplace.

33. Duties of employees

As an employee under the Canada Labour Code, you are required to: use all safety materials, equipment, devices, and clothing that are provided by the employer and are intended to protect employees. follow procedures relating to the health and safety of employees.

34. Right to know

Right to know is a human right enshrined in law in several countries. UNESCO defines it as the right for people to "participate in an informed way in decisions that affect them, while also holding governments and others accountable".

35. Right to participate

The foundations of the right to participation are shaped by the possibility of any individual to be involved in decision-making which affects her/his interests. Everyone should be able to participate in society, to defend her/his interests, to help create a society, which also fulfils her/his interests and desires.

36. Right to refuse

Every competent adult has the right to refuse unwanted medical treatment. This is part of the right of every individual to choose what will be done to their own body, and it applies even when refusing treatment means that the person may die.

37. Occupational health and safety : violation tickets

As of January 1, 2014, workers and employers in contravention of ticketable provisions of OHS legislation can be issued tickets by OHS officers. OHS tickets will be similar to a traffic ticket: they are an on-the-spot penalty given out following an infraction of the law.

38. Compliance and Enforcement

An Order to Comply is a direction from a Safety Officer or the Chief Safety Officer directing or ordering a person to correct a deficiency that is causing or has caused a compliance issue and which could constitute an offense.

39. An administrative penalty

An administrative penalty is a monetary penalty that can be imposed on individuals or companies who fail to comply with requirements of a statute or regulation, an order given by a Ministry official, or a requirement of an authorization (permit, license, approval etc.).

40. The Public Prosecution Service of Canada (PPSC)

The Public Prosecution Service of Canada (PPSC) is a national, independent and accountable prosecuting authority whose main objective is to prosecute federal offences and provides legal advice and assistance to law enforcement. The Public Prosecution Service of Canada was established on December 12, 2006 by the Director of Public Prosecutions Act. A federal agency, the PPSC prosecutes offences on behalf of the Government of Canada.

41. Right to appeal

Subsection 129(7) of the Canada Labour Code, Part II, gives the right to appeal a decision of no danger made by an official delegated by the Minister of Labour. Section 146 of Part II gives the right to appeal directions issued by an official delegated by the Minister of Labour. If you are an employee (or a person designated by the employee) who refused to work because you believed there was a danger and you disagree with the official delegated by the Minister of Labour’s decision of no danger, you may appeal that decision. If you are an employer, employee or union that feels aggrieved by a direction issued by an official delegated by the Minister of Labour, you may appeal that direction.

42. Duties. Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians

Duties. Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians typically do the following: Inspect, test, and evaluate workplace environments, equipment, and practices to ensure that they follow safety standards and government regulations. Prepare written reports on their findings.

43. What is the training cycle?

The training cycle involves the development, delivery, and continuous improvement of a training program. It consists of systematic stages that ensure better training results. The training cycle starts long before a training session and lasts beyond the end of the training process.

44. Types of Training Methods

Types of Training Methods
Case Studies.
Instructor-Led Training.
Interactive Training.
On-the-Job Training.
Video-Based Training.

45. Explore five stages of the training process

Explore five stages of the training process:

46. Training and development

Training and development refers to educational activities within a company created to enhance the knowledge and skills of employees while providing information and instruction on how to better perform specific tasks.

47. What are the principles of training?

Training means engaging in activity to improve performance and/or fitness; this is best accomplished by understanding general sports training principles: overload, reversibility, progression, individualization, periodization, and specificity.

48. Integrated Health and Safety (IHS)

Integrated Health and Safety (IHS) is the strategic and systematic integration of distinct health and safety programs and policies into a continuum of organizational, personal, occupational, community and environmental activities that are replicable, measurable, and integrated across institutional silos, enhancing the SMS.

49. The Transformative Learning Theory

The Transformative Learning Theory has three fundamental components that facilitate the learning and transformation of adults in the business environment. These are critical reflection, the centrality of experience, and rational discourse.

50. Nerstrom Transformative Learning Model

What are the 4 stages of transformational learning?
The four phases are (a) having experiences; (b) making assumptions; (c) challenging perspectives; and (d) experiencing transformative learning. Transformative learning then becomes a new experience.

51. HSE safety program

HSE (Health, Safety and Environment) is a set of processes and procedures identifying potential hazards to a certain environment, developing best practices to reduce or remove those hazards, and then training employees for accident prevention, accident response, etc.

52. Safety training program

Safety training refers to learning programs designed to train employees on precautionary processes and procedures to mitigate risk or the chance of injury or fatality on the job. Safety training is a form of compliance training delivered to protect the organization and its people

53. What are the 4 routes of entry?

In order to understand how chemical hazards can affect you, it is important to first understand how chemicals can get into your body and do damage. The four main routes of entry are inhalation, ingestion, injection, and absorption through the skin and eyes.

54. What is the most common route of entry?

Inhalation is the most common route of entry a chemical can take to enter the body. Prevention - Personal protective equipment that provides protection from airborne contaminants includes respirators or masks appropriate for the specific contaminant.

55. Hazards and controls associated with gases

There are a number of risks when using gas such as explosion from damaged, overheated or poorly maintained cylinders, pipes equipment or appliances. There is also the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning and burns caused by contact with flame or hot surfaces.

56. Basic knowledge of Benzene

Benzene is a colourless, flammable liquid with a pleasant odour. It is used as a solvent in many areas of industries, such as rubber and shoe manufacturing, and in the production of other important substances such as styrene, phenol and cyclohexane. It is essential in the manufacture of detergents, pesticides, solvents and paint removers. It is present in fuels such as in gasoline up to the level of 5%. The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) in the workplace air over an 8- hour working day (as recommended in many countries) is 10 ppm (or 32 mg/m3). Some countries recommend even lower levels. The odour threshold is 12 ppm. The odour serves only as a warning of exposure. If you are handling benzene without smelling it, this does not mean that there is no exposure.

57. Chemical hazards

Chemical hazards are present anytime workers are exposed chemical substances. Examples include cleaning solutions and solvents, vapors and fumes, carbon monoxide and any other gases.

58. Difference between fumes and mists

Mist consists of fine drops of liquid (especially water drops) in the air. Fume are gaseous residues of combustion. Apart from gases and vapours smoke additionally contains solid matter in a very fine shape (often colloidal) such as soot, metal oxide particles or aerosols like drops of oil.

59. Types of mist are there

There are several different types of fog, including radiation fog, advection fog, valley fog, and freezing fog. Radiation fog forms in the evening when heat absorbed by the Earth's surface during the day is radiated into the air. As heat is transferred from the ground to the air, water droplets form.

60. Acoustic barriers

Acoustic barriers are panels made of sound absorbing material which are placed between the source of noise and the worker. Panels must be designed appropriately (e.g., panels placed in highly reflective rooms are not always effective in attenuating the noise that reaches the worker).

61. Noise permissible exposure limit

OSHA sets legal limits on noise exposure in the workplace. These limits are based on a worker's time weighted average over an 8 hour day. With noise, OSHA's permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 90 dBA for all workers for an 8 hour day.

62. Enclosure and isolation

Noisy equipment can be enclosed in spaces or rooms that have special acoustic features – such as sound isolating, acoustic louvers, or sealed windows and doors. The degree of sound attenuation will depend on the noise reduction properties of the materials used to build the room. Isolation is used to reduce the sound transmitted through vibrations. The equipment is isolated from radiating surfaces by materials such as springs, elastomeric materials, cork, and foam rubber. For example: heavy vibrating machinery can be supported by isolating springs and rubber inserts, or vibrating pipes can be supported by brackets that are padded by rubber isolators or by springs.

63. What is the emergency preparedness?

The term refers to the steps you take to make sure you are safe before, during and after an emergency or natural disaster. These plans are important for your safety in both natural disasters and man-made disasters.

64. Project risk management stages

Three focus on stages of project risk management:
ACAT: Avoid, control, accept, and transfer.
AMTA: Avoid, mitigate, transfer, accept.
SARA: Share, avoid, reduce, accept.

65. CSA Z731

The objective of this Standard is to establish minimum criteria for effective emergency preparedness and response. This Standard applies to all organizations (as defined in Clause 3.1) that may be affected by natural, technological, and human events that could have a detrimental impact on, among other things

66. NFPA 1600

Standard on Continuity, Emergency, and Crisis Management: The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission), recognized NFPA 1600 as our National Preparedness Standard®. Widely used by public, not-for-profit, nongovernmental, and private entities on a local, regional, national, international and global basis, NFPA 1600 has been adopted by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as a voluntary consensus standard for emergency preparedness.

67. Workplace violence and harassment prevention programs.

To ensure a comprehensive program, organizations must design a Workplace Violence Prevention Program that consists of a workplace violence prevention policy and a program that includes; reporting, response and investigation procedures; environmental control procedures; work practice and administrative control

68. Pollution prevention (P2

Pollution prevention (P2) is any practice that reduces, eliminates, or prevents pollution at its source before it is created. As shown by the EPA Waste Management Hierarchy, P2, also known as "source reduction," is fundamentally different and, where feasible, more desirable than recycling, treatment or disposal.

69. GB CLP hazard pictograms

Explosive (Symbol: exploding bomb)
Flammable (Symbol: flame)
Oxidizing (Symbol: flame over circle)
Corrosive (Symbol: corrosion)
Acute toxicity (Symbol: skull and crossbones)
Hazardous to the environment (Symbol: environment)
Health hazard/Hazardous to the ozone layer (Symbol: exclamation mark)

70. What is a GHS Safety Data Sheet?

Safety data sheets (SDS) are a critically important part of the GHS and global chemical safety. They provide extensive information on a substance, its supplier and the safe handling and use of it. The information contained in the SDS is largely the same as the MSDS, except now the SDSs are required to be presented in a consistent user-friendly, 16-section format. This brief provides guidance to help workers who handle hazardous chemicals to become familiar with the format and understand the contents of the SDSs.

71. GHS Label Requirements

The Six Elements
Signal Word. The signal word indicates hazard level. ...
GHS Symbols (Hazard Pictograms) ...
Manufacturer Information. ...
Precautionary Statements / First Aid. ...
Hazard Statements. ...
Product Name or Identifiers.

72. Research databases

Research databases are organized collections of computerized information or data such as periodical articles, books, graphics and multimedia that can be searched to retrieve information. Databases can be general or subject oriented with bibliographic citations, abstracts, and or full text.

73. What is hazard awareness?

What is Hazard Awareness. Hazard awareness is a repetitive learning behavior, especially in a construction environment. The wellbeing of yourself and others depends on the awareness of potential and existing hazards. Through training and plan task observations we learn to identify and to be more aware of hazards.

74. Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct Respect in the Workplace

Certificants are required to:
Support, promote and apply the principles of human rights, equity, dignity and respect in the workplace. Recognize that discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, language, national origin, political or religious affiliation, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status, family relationship and disability is prohibited.

75. Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct Integrity

Certificants are required to:
Maintain honesty, integrity, and objectivity in all activities. Protect and promote the safety and health of people, property and the environment above any consideration of self-interest. Avoid circumstances where compromise of conduct or conflict of interest may arise. Represent their qualifications and experience accurately and not knowingly make false or misleading statements.

76. Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct Competence

Certificants are required to:
Maintain competence in carrying out responsibilities and provide services in an honest and diligent manner. Provide sound judgement in pursuance of their duties. Recognize their limitations and perform only those services that may be handled competently based on one’s training and experience. Ensure persons working under their authority or supervision are competent to carry out the tasks assigned to them.

77. Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct

The purpose of the BCRSP Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct (the Code) is to provide guidance to ensure that each certificant adheres to high standards of integrity and competence. Competence is “the ability to perform a task, function or role up to a set of prescribed standards." Preamble: As a condition to obtaining and maintaining certification, each certificant commits to abide by the Code as adopted by the Board of Canadian Registered Safety Professionals (BCRSP). Each certificant pledges to subscribe not only to the letter but also to the spirit of the Code in all their activities.

78. classic motivation theory

Based on classic motivation theory, employee involvement suggests that employees will exert effort and work efficiently when they feel they are in control of their work, are given meaningful work, receive feedback on their performance, and are rewarded for the success of the business.

79. Building engagement

Building engagement means participating in its four essential components: enablement, energy, empowerment, and encouragement. If you want to create a workplace of truly engaged employees, each of these four elements must be alive and thriving in your organization.

80. What is employee commitment?

Employee commitment is an emotional attachment to and involvement with an organization. Employee commitment is a bond between the employee and the organization such that the employee wants to continue serving the organization and helping it achieve its objectives.

81. 4 steps to motivate your workforce

Provide clear expectations.
Provide regular recognition and praise.
Provide a clear understanding of the big picture.
Provide a caring company attitude.

82. The five steps of the TNA process

Defining strategic goals.
Outlining required skills and knowledge.
Evaluating current skills.
Locating performance gaps and causes.
Establishing training needs.

83. A training needs assessment

A training needs assessment indicates an employee's current skills and competency levels. This evaluation is then used to determine where each employee stands in terms of the required competency level needed for maximum performance and productivity in the present and future.

84. Unsafe Conditions vs Unsafe Acts

Unsafe Conditions can be defined as workplace environment risks to workers that may or may not have been identified, such as biological, chemical, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and physical conditions. Unsafe Acts can be defined as an employee ignoring the prescribed safety standards or company policies.

85. Unsafe act and unsafe condition difference

Machine rotating part without safety guard is example of unsafe condition, & operating of that machine is UNSAFE act performed by worker. Working at height is an unsafe condition, & not wearing PPEs while working at height is an unsafe act.

86. An unsafe behavior

An unsafe behavior is any act or behavior that deviates from a generally recognized safe way or specified method of doing a job and which increases the probabilities of an accident. Examples of unsafe behaviors in an industrial setting include: Lack of/improper use of PPE.

87. The 7 common workplace hazards

Safety hazards.
Biological hazards.
Physical hazards.
Ergonomic hazards.
Chemical hazards.
Work organization hazards.
Environmental hazards.

88. What are unsafe acts in aviation?

Unsafe acts also include two types of violation, defined in the report as “a deliberate breach of the rules by an operator who knows they are breaking air law” — routine, small-scale violations and “exceptional” violations that deviate significantly from the rules.

89. Hazards identification techniques - Observation

Observation of work being done. An act or instance of noticing or perceiving An act or instance of regarding attentively or watching The faculty or habit of observing or noticing The information or record secured by such an act

90. Task Analysis

Identify and analyze the individual steps within a particular task. A task analysis is simply a list of logically ordered component behaviors in any given task

91. “4 Ps” structure

1. Premises (Access/escape, Housekeeping, Working environment)
2. Plant and substances (Machinery guarding, local exhaust ventilation, and Use/storage/separation of materials/chemicals)
3. Procedures (Permits-to-work., Use of PPEs, Procedures & Protocols followed)
4. People (Health surveillance, People’s behavior, Appropriate authorized person)

92. Checklists

Cover key issues to be monitored. A checklist is a tool that project managers use to stay organized. Checklists can help project managers keep track of project tasks, requirements, goals, and deadlines.

93. Employee Input

Involve employees with relevant experience and knowledge as they are likely to have the best understanding of the hazards; involvement also increases ‘ownership’ of the assessment and hopefully compliance with any control measures identified.

94. Hazards identification techniques - Incident Reports

Each company should maintain its own records of all accidents that have occurred.

95. Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)

A hazard and operability study ( HAZOP ) is a structured and systematic examination of a complex plan or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment. The intention of performing a HAZOP is to review the design to pick up design and engineering issues that may otherwise not have been found.

96. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)

Failure mode and effects analysis ( FMEA ; often written with "failure modes" in plural) is the process of reviewing as many components, assemblies, and subsystems as possible to identify potential failure modes in a system and their causes and effects.

97. Fault tree analysis (FTA)

Fault Tree Analysis is a graphic failure analysis tool used to deduct causes of undesired results and failures at the system level.

98. Key Steps in a Risk Assessment

Step 1: Identify the hazards.
Step 2: Decide who might be harmed and how.
Step 3: Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions.
Step 4: Record your findings and implement them.
Step 5: Review your assessment and update if necessary.

99. Risk Assessment - Quantitative

A measurement of magnitude is involved, e.g. there were four fatalities due to falls from a height over a 12-month period at Business X; the airborne concentration of formaldehyde in a workplace was measured as 13ppm.

100. Risk Assessment - Semi-Quantitative

Semi-quantitative risk assessments may also use a simple matrix to combine estimates of likelihood and consequence in order to place risks in rank order.

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