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CSP 100 Flashcards

1. Power Transmission Guards

Power transmission guarding protects your operators and others in the work area from pinch points and entanglement hazards created by uncovered belts, pulleys, shafts, and blades.
Ex. Guards of Drive Trains

2. Presence Sensing Guards

A presence sensing machine guard is one which, without placing a physical barrier between the operator and the dangerous parts of the machine, senses the approach of a body or part of a body.
- Mats
- Photoelectric Sensors
- Lasers

3. Restraints

Pull-backs and restraints press safety systems either prevent an operator from reaching the point of operation or pull the operator away from the hazard. Physically prevent entry into device

4. Two Hand Control

Two-hand controls can be used as safeguarding devices in the single stoke mode of operation on part revolution clutch presses. Employees must use both hands to operate

5. Hand Feed Tools

machine safety hand feeding tools have been a mainstay for operator safety when using mechanical power presses and other metal fabrication machines. Tools used to feed products into and out of machine

6. Robots

A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. - Used heavily in auto industry

7. Abrasive Wheels

Abrasive Wheels: Grinding, deburring, cutting and polishing wheels From light buffing, deburring and finishing to heavy cutting and grinding, Perform RING TEST prior to installation.
- Tests the integrity of the abrasive grinding wheel
- Want to hear ring when tapping wheel

8. Abrasive Wheel Work Rests

Work rests shall be kept adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of 1/8 inch (0.3175 cm) to prevent the work from being jammed between the wheel and the rest

9. Lockout Tagout Procedures (Electricity)

- Control of hazardous energy
- Zero energy state - needs to be taken down to this state
- WRITTEN program - need to have a written program
- Training
- Must be "competent person" (OSHA)

10. "Competent Person" (OSHA)

An OSHA "competent person" is defined as "one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them" [ 29 CFR 1926.32 (f) ]..

11. 7 Types of Hazardous Energy

1. Potential
2. Kinetic
3. Mechanical
4. Electrical
5. Pneumatic
6. Hydraulic
7. Steam

12. Authorized Worker

An Authorised Worker whose employer’s work premises is interstate, or who is self-employed, a sole-trader, an independent contractor or sub-contractor, or a person appointed to or holding a statutory office, may issue themselves with an Authorised Worker Permit, signed as both the employer and worker.

13. Affected Worker

Any worker in the area where equipment is locked out Term. An affected employee is important. They are the employees who work in the area of a potential hazard, and who might be affected by the hazards created by the work being done, but may not be directly involved.

14. Control Point

Valve, switch, flange or other point on equipment used to isolate the equipment

15. Lock

Lock used ONLY for isolating equipment

16. Basic Lockout Procedure

1. Notify impacted employees
2. Power down equipment
3. Control energy as required
4. Try operating equipment
5. Perform work
6. Remove controls
7. Verify operation
8. Notify affected employees

17. Wooden Ladders Requirements

Portable Wood Ladders: Stepladders – Maximum 20’ Type I – Industrial – 3-20’ Type II – Commercial – 3-12’ Type III – Household – 3-6’

18. Metal Ladder Requirements

- 12" centre spacing for rungs
- Non-slip material on bottom FOUR rungs

19. Portable Step Ladder Maximum Length

20 feet

20. Type I Stepladder

- Industrial (utilities, contractors)
- 3 to 20 feet

21. Type II Stepladder

- Commercial (Painters, offices, light industrial)
- 3 to 12 feet

22. Type III Stepladder

- Household use
- 3 to 6 feet

23. Extension Ladder Required Dimensions

- Max Length = 60 feet - Height to base distance ratio: 4:1
- Ladder must extend 3 FEET ABOVE POINT OF SUPPORT
- Overlap Requirements:
- Ladder <(or equal) 36 ft: 3 FEET
- 36 Feet < Ladder <(or equal) 48 ft: 4 FEET
- 48 Feet < Ladder <(or equal) 60 ft: 5 FEET

24. Extension Ladder Safety Precautions

Extension ladders use to reach another surface, like a roof, must extend at least; Maintain three points of contact when climbing an extension ladder. Two hands + one foot or two feet + one hands.
- INSPECT prior to each use
- Feet set on NONSLIP base

25. Fixed Ladder Safety Requirements

Ladder must be TREATED to prevent corrosion in atmospheres that lead to corrosion.
- UNIFORM STEPS < (or equal) 1 FOOT apart
- Pitch not to exceed 90 DEGREES
- Recommended Pitch: 75 to 90 degrees

26. Fixed Ladder Cage Requirements

- Ladders > 20 FEET must have cage
- Ladders > 20 feet must have LANDING every 30 FEET
- Cage starts 7' - 8' from the ground
- Cage must extend 42 INCHES above LANDING

27. Stairway Safety Requirements

- Must have railing on all exposed sides
- Angle between 30 to 60 DEGREES
- Uniform spacing of steps

28. Standard Railing Requirements

- Top Rail, Mid Rail, and Posts
- Vertical height: 42 INCHES
- Mid-Rail height: 21 INCHES
- Withstand 200 LBS of horizontal force

29. Standard Toe board

OSHA standard 1910.28 defines toe board requirements for “employers to provide protection for each employee exposed to fall and falling object hazards.”
- 4 INCHES vertical height
- 1/4 INCH clearance above floor

30. Crane Safety Guidelines

- INSPECT all machinery and equipment prior to each use
- Attachments used with crane should NOT EXCEED MANUFACTURER'S RATING
- NEVER work under loads

31. Power Lines and Cranes

- Safest method is to ground at point of work
- IF you can't de-energize
- Use a default clearance between the crane and the lines of 20 FEET
- OSHA has defined distances as well (if voltage known)
- Minimum distance is 10 feet for up to 50 volts - then goes up 5 feet for every 150 volts up to 500 volts.
- From 500 - 1000 volts, goes up 10 feet for every 250 volts

32. Illumination for Safety

Illumination for Safety refers to the proper amount of illumination required for a person to detect a hazard and take appropriate action to mitigate that hazard. It is intended for safe navigation of pedestrians while on foot, bike, or other normal means of non-motorized transportation.
- Unit for illumination is the footcandle (fc)
- High hazard areas
- 5fc in high activity areas
- 2fc in low activity areas
- Low hazard Areas
- 1fc in high activity level
- .5fc in low activity level

33. Colours for Markings (Red, Yellow, Green, Black/White, Orange, Blue, Magenta)

Red: Danger, fire equipment
Yellow: Caution
Green: First Aid, Safety Equipment
Black/White: Traffic Markings
Orange: Dangerous Parts
Blue: Information
Magenta: Radiation Hazards

34. First Two Steps in Training Process

1. Needs Assessment
2. Training Objectives

35. Needs Assessment (training) Definition

- Determination as to whether training is correct response to organization's needs
- A "Gap analysis" of current results and desired results Term

36. Hierarchy of Controls ("ESEAP")


37. Solutions to Skill/Knowledge Issues

- Training
- Information
- Job Aids
- Coaching
- Mentoring

38. Solutions to Environmental Issues

- Redesign of Job
- New tools
- New technology

39. Important Training Objectives

- Clearly state what STUDENTS WILL GAIN from training
- Objectives must be MEASURABLE
- Ex. Identify 5 hazards on the MSDS

40. Four Components of a Training Performance Objective

1. WHO is being trained?
2. WHAT should they be able to do?
3. Under what CONDITIONS should they be able to do it?
4. How well must they PERFORM?

41. Most/Least Effective Methods for Retention

Most: Practicing material
Least: Reading material

42. Ways that Active Participants Learn Best

- Hands on Learning
- Participating in simulations
- Field Trips
- Drills

43. Ways that Reflective Observers Learn Best

- Reading manuals
- Watching videos
- Listening to lectures

44. Recordkeeping Elements

- Maintain records of all training in employee work history
- Include:
(1) TRAINING Attended
(2) DATE Attended
(3) PURPOSE of Training

45. Order of Math Operations (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Suzy)


46. Static Muscular Effort

Static muscle work refers to the capacity to maintain physical exertion throughout an assigned task, requiring prolonged contraction at the site of a particular muscle group (s) without corresponding relaxation to relieve tension. Muscles have a long state of contraction - can lead to deterioration of joints, ligaments, tendons

47. Dynamic Muscular Effort

The Dynamic Effort Method of training is defined as lifting a submaximal weight with maximal effort. By training to move a submaximal weight with as much velocity as possible, the lifter develops greater force output than they would by lifting a heavier load slowly. This increases overall strength. Muscles constantly moving

48. Musculoskeletal Disorders

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are conditions that can affect your muscles, bones, and joints. MSDs include tendinitis carpal tunnel syndrome osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
- Disorders of muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints
- Not typically a result of acute event

49. Occupational Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders ("RJFCV")

- Repetition/duration Less than 30 sec/cycle More than 1,000 parts per shift
- Joint deviation
Raised elbows.
Bent wrists.
- Force
High amount of hand force
Hand grasping
Mechanical stress

50. Higher Risk Body Parts

- Soft tissue
- Muscle, tendon
- Nerves
- Blood vessels
- Lower back

51. Tendon

Connects muscle to bone

52. Ligament

Connects bone to bone ("BLB")

53. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

- Carpal tunnel on the palmar side of the wrist contains tendons, nerve, etc
- Swelling of tendon pinches nerve

54. Epicondylitis ("Tennis Elbow")

- Caused by jerky, throwing motions
- Tendons on outside elbow injured or strained

55. Tendinitis

Inflammation of tendons associated with repeated moving, bending

56. Trigger Finger

Finger movement not smooth - snaps or jerks

57. White Finger

- Insufficient blood supply causes fingers to become pale
- Arteries closed due to vasospasms triggered by VIBRATIONS
- Working in the cold, working with jackhammers, etc

58. Ergonomics Program Steps/Factors

- All personnel represented on ergo team (labour, management, engineering, safety)
- Training
- Identifying existing or potential problems
- Evaluate risk factors
- Design and implement
- Monitor Effectiveness of corrections

59. Workstation Design (10 Factors)

1. Ensure PROPER MATCH between facility and operator
2. Task design and work DESIGN INTERRELATED
- Forces kept to less than 30% of maximal forces
- Up to 50% acceptable for short durations
- Static forces kept to less than 15% of maximal forces
4. Foot controls OK for seated workers NOT for standing workers
5. Maintain proper SITTING HEIGHT
7. Accommodate LARGE OPERATORS in design
8. BENCH Height
- Sitting 50cm - 70cm
- Standing 89cm
9. Controls and computer screens placed in VISUAL FIELD
10 INSTRUCT and TRAIN operators to use good working posture

60. Standing Work Heights (Delicate, Light, Heavy)

Delicate work - 2"-4" above elbow
- Light work - 2"-4" below elbow
- Heavy work - 6"-16" below elbow

61. REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) (Bag it, tag it) Steps

- Looks at entire body as you do a task - Steps
1. Observe the task
2. Fill out a checklist
3. Compute Scores
4. Compare
5. Interview and Observation
- Based on
- The most difficult postures and work tasks
- Posture sustained for longest period of time
- Posture where highest workloads occur

62. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment)

Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a survey method developed for use in ergonomic investigations of workplaces where work related upper limb disorders are reported. RULA is a screening tool that assesses biomechanical and postural loading on the whole body with particular attention to the neck, trunk and upper limbs. Very similar to REBA - see REBA for steps

63. REBA/RULA Pros/Cons

- User Friendly
- Advanced Degrees/special equipment not required
- Does not consider duration of task - Only allows for looking at one point in time or worst-case scenario
- Must use representative postures

64. System Safety

- Systematic approach to detect deficiencies in system components
- Incorporate safety devices
- Provide warnings
- Develop procedures/training

65. System Safety Analysis (What-if, HAZOP)

- What-if Analysis: INFORMAL investigation introducing and evaluating hypotheticals
- Haz-OP: FORMAL study examining potential deviations from design conditions that could create problems/hazards
- Both frequently a TEAM EFFORT

66. FMEA (analysis)

- Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
- Looks to potential equipment failures - traced to predict effects
- Analysis leads to critical items list: What are the worst hazards? How to prioritize?

67. STEP analysis

- Simultaneous Timed Events Plotting
- Looks at events from time or sequence perspective

68. MORT

- Management Oversight and Risk Tree
- Identifies risks and refers to proper management

69. Energy Trace and Barrier Analysis (Part of MORT)

- Incident: unwanted energy flow from inadequate barriers resulting WITHOUT adverse consequences
- Accident: Same but WITH adverse consequences

70. Fault Tree Analysis - Event Types

- Four Event Types:
- Fault Event: Rectangle
- Basic Event: Circle
- Undeveloped Event: Diamond
- Normal Event: House Shape - probability close to 1

71. Fault Tree Analysis - "And" gates; "Or" gates

- "And Gate": A and B both need to occur to lead to C
- A x B = C
- Bullet shape
- "Or Gate": A or B needs to occur to lead to C
- A+B=C
- Looks kind of like an oar (Curved semicircle)
See p. 164-165 for examples

72. Aims of Industrial Hygiene

1. Anticipate
2. Recognize
3. Evaluate
4. Control
Health Hazards

73. TLVs (health hazards)

- Threshold Limit Values
- GUIDELINES in controlling hazards NOT in regulations
- Level of exposure a typical worker can experience without adverse health effects
- Based on industrial experience and lab tests


- Time Weighted Average
- 8-hour workday
- 40-hour work week
- Nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed DAY AFTER DAY without adverse effect


- Short Term Exposure Limit
- Workers can be exposed continuously for a SHORT PERIOD OF TIME without: Irritation
Chronic/irreversible tissue damage Narcosis (stupor, drowsiness, unconsciousness)
- No longer than 15 MINUTES
- No more than 4 TIMES A DAY
- 60 MINUTES BETWEEN exposures


- Permissible Exposure Limit
- Based on TLVs from 1968

77. Ceiling Limit

Concentration should not be exceeded at ANY time

78. Particulate Matter Size Categories

- Inhalable - less than or equal to 100 μm (micro meters)
- Thoracic - less than or equal to 10 micrometers
- These get a little farther into the throat but not far enough to cause any damage
- Respirable - less than or equal to 4 micrometers
- These get far down enough to cause damage

79. Pump and Filter Sampling Method

- Measures for total dust
- Pulls air through filter
- Filter sent to lab to be weighed - Gravimetric method

80. Cyclone Sampling Method

- Used for RESPIRABLE dust
- Uses pump and filter as well
- Cyclone system separates smaller particulate from larger
- Placed in the breathing zone - around face

81. Direct Reading Dust Monitor (Miniram)

- Scatters light in a room and uses to take a reading for dust

82. Photoionization Detector (PID)

- Used to test for amount and class of chemicals in the air
- Immediate qualitative results
- IF you know the individual contaminants you can get quantitative results

83. PID Disadvantages

Poor selectivity
- Adversely affected by: humidity, particulates, hot/corrosive atmospheres
- Must be recalibrated when lamp ages/is contaminated

84. Gas Detector Tubes

- Specific volume of air drawn through tube with hand pump
- In tube you have chemicals that will react with the things you are looking for
- Color changes proportional to concentration

85. Combustible Gas Detector

- Measures combustible gases as a percentage of the lower flammable limit or lower explosive limit (LEL)
- Called a Wheatstone Bridge This is what gas is burned across Part of the combustible gas detector
- Alarm sounds at 10% LEL

86. Absorbents (impinger)

LIQUID media absorbs air with contaminant
- Sample drawn through liquid and gas absorbed in liquid
- Liquid analyzed in lab

87. Adsorbents

- SOLID material that retains chemical molecules
Activated carbon most common
- Tube sent to lab for analysis
- Adsorbents can be used:
Actively - air being pulled through media.
Passively - media being worn etc.
- Good for: hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohol, glycol ethers

88. Active Sampling

Two sections: collection adsorbent and breakthrough adsorbent

89. Breakthrough

- Essentially contamination of sample
- High temperature
- Migration of Chemicals

90. Diffusion Sampling

- Passive sampling
- Sample rate determined by Fick's Law - this has been on test
- Uses same media as solid sorbent tubes
- Less obtrusive to the wearer

91. Biological Air Sampling

- Uses pump - air drawn through media
- Collects colony forming units
- Count colonies that grow

92. Calibration of Air Sampling Instruments

- All air sampling instruments must be calibrated
- Pumps must calibrate airflow BEFORE and AFTER each sampling period
- Electrochemical sensors must be calibrated on a routine basis

93. Vector

Organism is a vector if it spreads disease

94. Fungi

- Everywhere in human environments
- MOISTURE and growth MEDIA lead to growth Term

95. mVOCs

- Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds
- Spores offgassing when reproducing produces bad smell

96. Legionella

Legionella is a genus of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis (all illnesses caused by Legionella) including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires' disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever.
- Bacteria
- Legionary disease
- In air conditioners, cooling units, cooling towers
- Water Sampling

97. E Col

Escherichia coli , also known as E. coli, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. - Bacteria
- Water Sampling to Detect

98. Drug Resistant Pathogens

- Staph infection
- Tuberculosis (skin and airways)
- Droplet spread respiratory infection
- Influenza
- H1N1: "bird flu"
- H1N5: "swine flu"

99. Parasites

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host and gets its food from or at the expense of its host.
- Bedbugs
- Giardia
- Tapeworms
- Malaria


ALARP ("as low as reasonably practicable"), or ALARA ("as low as reasonably achievable"), is a principle in the regulation and management of safety-critical and safety-involved systems

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