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SMS 100 Flashcards

1. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA)

The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) is usually the first attempt in the system safety process to identify and categorize hazards or potential hazards associated with the operation of a proposed system, process, or procedure. The PHA may be preceded with the preparation of a Preliminary Hazard List (PHL).

2. What is the purpose of PHA?

The purpose of the PHA is to identify and evaluate the hazards of the process, and ways or methods to control them. The most hazardous processes must be evaluated first. All PHAs must be completed as soon as possible.

3. What are the types of PHA analysis?

Common methods for PHA include “bowtie” analysis, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Hazard and Operability studies (HAZOPs) and “What If” analyses.

4. What is a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)?

A JHA is a method for identifying and evaluating hazards associated with tasks (steps) with a specific job or activity and eliminating or mitigating them prior to conducting work.

5. Is a JSA required by OSHA?

OSHA doesn't necessarily require you to conduct JSAs, but it does recommend you do so as a best practice.

6. Property damage liability coverage

Property damage liability coverage is required by law in most states. It typically helps cover the cost of repairs if you are at fault for a car accident that damages another vehicle or property such as a fence or building front. Property damage liability coverage usually does not cover damage to your own vehicle.

7. A tort

A tort is an act or omission that gives rise to injury or harm to another and amounts to a civil wrong for which courts impose liability. In the context of torts, "injury" describes the invasion of any legal right, whereas "harm" describes a loss or detriment in fact that an individual suffers.

8. Joint liability

Joint liability denotes the obligation of two or more partners to pay back a debt or be responsible for satisfying a liability. A joint liability allows parties to share the risks associated with taking on debt and to protect themselves in the event of lawsuits.

9. Joint and several liability

Joint and several liability arises where two or more persons under the same contract jointly promise to do the same thing, and also severally make separate promises to do the same thing.

10. The “attractive nuisance”

The “attractive nuisance” doctrine states that property owners may be held liable for injuries to children trespassing on the land if the injury is caused by a hazardous object or condition found on the premises that is likely to attract kids.

11. A job safety analysis (JSA)

A job safety analysis (JSA) is a procedure which helps integrate accepted safety and health principles and practices into a particular task or job operation. In a JSA, each basic step of the job is to identify potential hazards and to recommend the safest way to do the job.

12. Steps for Completing an Effective JSA

Step 1: Select the Job to Be Analysed. ...
Step 2: Break Down the Job Into a Sequence. ...
Step 3: Identify Prospective Hazards. ...
Step 4: Determine Preventive Measures. ...
Step 5: Document and Report Hazards. ...
Step 6: Receive Assistance When Necessary.

11. A job safety analysis (JSA)

A job safety analysis (JSA) is a procedure which helps integrate accepted safety and health principles and practices into a particular task or job operation. In a JSA, each basic step of the job is to identify potential hazards and to recommend the safest way to do the job.

12. Steps for Completing an Effective JSA

Step 1: Select the Job to Be Analysed. ...
Step 2: Break Down the Job Into a Sequence. ...
Step 3: Identify Prospective Hazards. ...
Step 4: Determine Preventive Measures. ...
Step 5: Document and Report Hazards. ...
Step 6: Receive Assistance When Necessary.

13. The GHS

the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). The GHS includes criteria for the classification of health, physical and environmental hazards, as well as specifying what information should be included on labels of hazardous chemicals as well as safety data sheets.

14. Asbestosis

Asbestosis is a chronic (long-term) lung condition caused by prolonged exposure to asbestos. Asbestos is a general term for a group of minerals made of microscopic fibres. In the past, it was widely used in construction. Asbestos can be very dangerous.

15. Asbestos

Asbestos is a group of naturally occurring fibrous minerals. There are six identified types of asbestos that belong to the amphibole and serpentine mineral families.

16. Medical surveillance

Medical surveillance is the systematic assessment of employees exposed or potentially exposed to occupational hazards. This assessment monitors individuals for adverse health effects and determines the effectiveness of exposure prevention strategies.

17. Common Forms of Surveillance

Interviews – For a missing person investigation, interviews are paramount to understanding the subject. ...
Physical observation – Physical observation is common for spousal investigations. ...
Electronic – Electronic monitoring is often the tool of choice among investigators.

18. What is a substance abuse test?

These tests indicate if one or more prescription or illegal drugs are present in urine. These tests detect the presence of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, opiates, methamphetamine, amphetamines, PCP, benzodiazepine, barbiturates, methadone, tricyclic antidepressants, ecstasy, and oxycodone

19. Whole-body vibration

Whole-body vibration is vibration from machines and/or vehicles that moves into the worker's body through the buttocks, back or feet. This includes: seated and standing workers who drive vehicles or mobile equipment. workers who are involved in operations in which machinery vibrates, such as vibratory separators.

20. Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS).

Vibration is transmitted into your hands and arms when using hand held / operated tools and machinery. Excessive exposure can affect the nerves, blood vessels, muscles and joints of the hand, wrist and arm causing Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS).

21. Electrical Main Hazards

electric shock and burns from contact with live parts. injury from exposure to arcing, fire from faulty electrical equipment or installations. explosion caused by unsuitable electrical apparatus or static electricity igniting flammable vapours or dusts, for example in a spray paint booth.

22. What are the main types of controls for electrical hazards?

These include: insulation, guarding, grounding, electrical protective devices, and safe work practices. One way to safeguard individuals from electrically energized wires and parts is through insulation.

23. Mechanical hazards

Mechanical hazards arise from relative movements between parts of the human body and objects such as work equipment or work objects, which lead to their contact. The result of this contact can be accidents that lead to injuries.

24. four general types of guards

There are four general types of guards:

25. Machine guarding

Machine guarding - 1910.212(a)(1) Types of guarding. One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by point of operation, ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks.

26. Safety devices

Safety devices can be divided into contact and noncontact types. Noncontact safety devices include infrared sensing, ultrasonic, microwave, laser scanning, and laser radar.

27. Bloodborne pathogens

Bloodborne pathogens are infectious microorganisms in human blood that can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Needlesticks and other sharps-related injuries may expose workers to bloodborne pathogens.

28. waterborne pathogens

A pathogen means an agent that causes disease to a host, and waterborne pathogens are the causative agents (usually living organisms) for diseases that are being transmitted through water. Water pollution can occur due to chemical and/or biological contaminants.

29. Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (or ionising radiation), including nuclear radiation, consists of subatomic particles or electromagnetic waves that have sufficient energy to ionize atoms or molecules by detaching electrons from them.

30. Alpha particles

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus. Alpha particle emissions are generally produced in the process of alpha decay.

31. How much ionizing radiation is harmful?

Between 2 and 10 sieverts in a short-term dose would cause severe radiation sickness with increasing likelihood that this would be fatal. In a short-term dose is about the threshold for causing immediate radiation sickness in a person of average physical attributes, but would be unlikely to cause death.

32. Non-ionizing radiation

Non-ionizing radiation is described as a series of energy waves composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields traveling at the speed of light. Non-ionizing radiation includes the spectrum of ultraviolet (UV), visible light, infrared (IR), microwave (MW), radio frequency (RF), and extremely low frequency (ELF).

33. Lead permissible exposure limit (PEL)

The current OSHA standard (29 CFR 1926.62) for lead exposure in construction has a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3), measured as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

34. OSHA enforceable permissible exposure limits (PELs)

OSHA sets enforceable permissible exposure limits (PELs) to protect workers against the health effects of exposure to hazardous substances, including limits on the airborne concentrations of hazardous chemicals in the air. Most OSHA PELs are 8-hour time-weighted averages (TWA), although there are also Ceiling and Peak limits, and many chemicals include a skin designation to warn against skin contact. Approximately 500 PELs have been established.

35. Chemical hazards

Chemical hazards and toxic substances pose a wide range of health hazards (such as irritation, sensitization, and carcinogenicity) and physical hazards (such as flammability, corrosion, and explosibility).


ACGIH® is a private, not-for-profit, nongovernmental corporation. It is not a standards setting body. ACGIH® is a scientific association that develops recommendations or guidelines to assist in the control of occupational health hazards. TLVs® and BEIs® are health-based values and are not intended to be used as legal standards.

37. Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®)

Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) refer to airborne concentrations of chemical substances and represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, over a working lifetime, without adverse effects.

38. Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®)

Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®) are guidance values for assessing biological monitoring results – concentrations of chemicals in biological media (e.g., blood, urine). BEIs® represent the levels of determinants that are most likely to be observed in specimens collected from healthy workers who have been exposed to chemicals in the same extent as workers with inhalation exposure at the TLV®.

39. Action level

An airborne level, typically one-half of the PEL designated in OSHA’s substance-specific standards, 29 CFR 1910, Subpart Z , calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average, which initiates certain required activities such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance.

40. Ceiling Limit

The exposure limit a worker’s exposure may never exceed.

41. Time-Weighted Average (TWA)

The average exposure to a contaminant over a given period of time, typically 8-hours.

42. Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL)

The average exposure to a contaminant to which a worker may be exposed during a short time period (typically 15 – 30 minutes).

43. Sampling and Analytical Error

A statistical estimate of the uncertainty associated with a given exposure measurement.

44. What are the requirements for respirator use?

When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or while they are being instituted, appropriate respirators shall be used. Employers must provide appropriate respiratory protection at no cost to workers, provide appropriate training and education regarding its use, and ensure that workers use it properly.

45. root cause analysis (RCA)

In science and engineering, root cause analysis (RCA) is a method of problem solving used for identifying the root causes of faults or problems.

46. Heat stress

Heat stress can result in heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, or heat rashes. Heat can also increase the risk of injuries in workers as it may result in sweaty palms

47. Heat exhaustion

Heat exhaustion is a condition whose symptoms may include heavy sweating and a rapid pulse, a result of your body overheating. It's one of three heat-related syndromes, with heat cramps being the mildest and heatstroke being the most severe.

48. advantages of ergonomics

Advantages. more comfortable; reduces strain on hands and wrists; less chance of getting a Repetitive Strain Injury; different angles of the keyboard allow your hands to be at a more natural position; Many types of ergonomic keyboards are available to chose the one best fit for you;

49. Ergonomics

Ergonomics refers to the concept and process of fitting the job to the worker. Factors considered when designing an ergonomically sound job include both physical and environmental factors. The ultimate goal of ergonomics is to prevent workplace injury and improve overall worker health.

50. An incident investigation

An incident investigation is the account and analysis of an incident based on information gathered by a thorough examination of all contributing factors and causes involved. It is widely accepted that incidents occur as a result of a chain of events.

51. The models used in accident investigation

The models used in accident investigation can typically be grouped into three types: sequential, epidemiological, and systemic models.

52. Incident

an occurrence of an action or situation that is a separate unit of experience: happening an accompanying minor occurrence or condition, concomitant an action likely to lead to grave consequences especially in diplomatic matters. a serious border incident.

53. Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT).

Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT). The simple model attempts to illustrate that the causes of any incident can be grouped into five categories - task, material, environment, personnel, and management. When this model is used, possible causes in each category should be investigated. Each category is examined more closely below. Remember that these are sample questions only: no attempt has been made to develop a comprehensive checklist.

54. The Five Stages of an Accident Investigation

Gathering information.
Analysing information.
Identifying risk control measures.
Action planning and implementing.

55. OSHA General Industry Inspection Checklist

It includes fields covering safety programs, first aid and medical services, fire protection measures, and PPE provided by the employer. It also helps employees and management review the general work environment to see areas for improvement.

56. 3 parts to an OSHA inspection

The inspection includes an opening conference, a "walkaround" of all or part of the workplace, and a closing conference. This may take a few hours or several weeks, depending on the number of hazards, workplace size, and other factors.

57. What does OSHA do after an accident?

If your incident report falls into Category 1, or Category 2 and an on-site inspection is warranted, OSHA will usually conduct an on-site inspection within five working days of the initial report, or sooner for fatalities and other catastrophes. Learn how to prepare for an on-site OSHA inspection.

58. OSHA standards four categories

OSHA standards fall into four categories: General Industry, Construction, Maritime, and Agriculture. There are four groups of OSHA standards: General Industry, Construction, Maritime, and Agriculture. (General Industry is the set that applies to the largest number of workers and worksites). These standards are designed to protect workers from a wide range of hazards.

59. OSHA standard code

OSHA standards are published in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and are divided into separate standards for General Industry, Construction, and Maritime.

60. How does OSHA define a recordable injury or illness?

Any work-related fatality. Any work-related injury or illness that results in loss of consciousness, days away from work, restricted work, or transfer to another job. Any work-related injury or illness requiring medical treatment beyond first aid.

61. An incidence rate

An incidence rate describes how quickly disease occurs in a population. It is based on person-time, so it has some advantages over an incidence proportion. Because person-time is calculated for each subject, it can accommodate persons coming into and leaving the study.

62. What is recordable vs reportable incidents?

Recordable incidents are so named because the incidents must be recorded and tracked by the business. These records are commonly reviewed by OSHA as requested. The other category of incidents are reportable incidents, these injuries and illnesses are also recordable incidents

63. 'Incidence proportion' and 'incidence rate'.

Incidence = the rate of new cases of a disease occurring in a specific population over a particular period of time. Two types of incidences are commonly used: 'incidence proportion' and 'incidence rate'.

64. the Five elements of the Hazard Communication Standard

These are the Five elements of the Hazard Communication Standard. They are: Chemical Inventory, Written Program, Labels, Material Safety Data Sheets, and Training. The first element of the Hazard Communication Standard is for employers to develop inventories of all the hazardous chemicals they have at their worksite.

63. 'Incidence proportion' and 'incidence rate'.

Incidence = the rate of new cases of a disease occurring in a specific population over a particular period of time. Two types of incidences are commonly used: 'incidence proportion' and 'incidence rate'.

64. the Five elements of the Hazard Communication Standard

These are the Five elements of the Hazard Communication Standard. They are: Chemical Inventory, Written Program, Labels, Material Safety Data Sheets, and Training. The first element of the Hazard Communication Standard is for employers to develop inventories of all the hazardous chemicals they have at their worksite.

65. 5 classifications of injuries

The main types are primary, secondary, direct, indirect and chronic injury.

66. A recordable incident rate

A recordable incident rate, also known as Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR), is the number of incidents which have occurred on-site, usually within a year, according to a certain number of hours worked by 100 employees.

67. KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)

KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) are metrics that help businesses determine whether they're meeting specific goals. For incident management, these metrics could be number of incidents, average time to resolve, or average time between incidents.

68. 4 E's Safety

4 E's Safety:- The main thrust of accident prevention and control across the world has been on 4 E's vis (i) Education; (ii) Enforcement; (iii) Engineering; and (iv) Environment and Emergency care of road accident victims.

69. 4 C's in health and safety

The 4 C's - Competence, Control, Co-operation and Communication are a useful aid to getting organised.

70. How do you calculate TRIR safety?

The formula for how to calculate TRIR is simple: the number of incidents, multiplied by 200,000, then divided by the total number of hours worked in a year. The number 200,000 is used because it is the total number of hours 100 employees would work in a year (100 workers x 40 hours x 50 weeks).

71. difference between OSHA recordable and reportable

Recording is simply the act of tracking an on-the-job injury or illness. Multiple forms and logs need to be filled out and maintained by each organization, with different details required of each one. Reporting means notifying OSHA of certain outcomes from occupational incidents, such as a death.

72. OSHA inspections

The inspection includes an opening conference, a "walkaround" of all or part of the workplace, and a closing conference. This may take a few hours or several weeks, depending on the number of hazards, workplace size, and other factors. Take notes throughout the process.

73. Types of OSHA Inspections

Imminent Danger Inspections. ...
Investigative Inspections. ...
Employee Complaint Inspections. ...
Programmed Inspections. ...
Follow-up Inspections.

74. Frequency of OSHA Inspections

The regulation at 29 CFR 1960.25(c) charges each agency with the responsibility to conduct an annual workplace safety and health inspection.

75. Inspection Priorities

OSHA's top priority for inspection is an imminent danger-a situation where workers face an immediate risk of death or serious physical harm.

76. stages of an OSHA workplace inspection

The four main stages of an OSHA workplace inspection include:
the credential presentation.
the opening conference.
the walk around.
the closing conference.

77. OSHA inspectors

OSHA inspectors, called compliance safety and health officers, are experienced, well-trained industrial hygienists and safety professionals whose goal is to assure compliance with OSHA requirements and help employers and workers reduce on-the-job hazards and prevent injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace.

78. What is a workplace emergency?

A workplace emergency is a situation that threatens workers, customers, or the public; disrupts or shuts down operations; or causes physical or environmental damage. Emergencies may be natural or man-made, and may include hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, floods, wildfires, winter weather, chemical spills or releases, disease outbreaks, releases of biological agents, explosions involving nuclear or radiological sources, and many other hazards. Many types of emergencies can be anticipated in the planning process, which can help employers and workers plan for other unpredictable situations.

79. What is an emergency action plan?

An emergency action plan (EAP) is intended to facilitate and organize employer and worker actions during workplace emergencies and is recommended for all employers. Well-developed emergency plans and proper worker training (i.e., so that workers understand their roles and responsibilities within the plan) will result in fewer and less severe worker injuries and less damage to the facility during emergencies. A poorly prepared plan may lead to a disorganized evacuation or emergency response, resulting in confusion, injury, illness (due to chemical, biological and/or radiation exposure), and/or property damage.

80. The Employee Alarm Systems standard (29 CFR 1910.165

The Employee Alarm Systems standard (29 CFR 1910.165) is also aimed at ensuring alarms are able to be perceived by all workers at a worksite, including those with physical impairments (see OSHA's 1990 interpretation of the standard). Accordingly:
Use visual devices to alert hearing-impaired workers (in addition to audible devices); and Use tactile devices to alert visually-impaired workers (in addition to audible and visual devices).

81. Evacuation Wardens

In addition to a coordinator, designate and train workers as evacuation wardens to help move workers from danger to safe areas during an emergency (see 29 CFR 1910.38(e) and 1926.35(e)(1)). Generally, one warden for every 20 workers should be adequate, and the appropriate number of wardens should be available at all times during working hours.

82. How often to train workers?

Review the plan with all workers and consider requiring annual training on the plan. Also conduct training after:
Development of the initial plan;
Hiring of new workers;
Introduction of new equipment, materials, or processes into the workplace that affect evacuation routes;
Reassignment of workers or changing their job duties;
Change of layout or design of the facility; and
Revision or updating of emergency procedures.

83. The National Incident Management System (NIMS

The National Incident Management System (NIMS) guides all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations and the private sector to work together to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to and recover from incidents.

84. Chain of Command

It is common practice to select a responsible individual, with appropriate training or certifications, to lead and coordinate the workplace emergency plan and evacuation. It is critical that the employer ensures that the workers know the identity of the coordinator, as well as understand that the coordinator has the responsibility for making life saving decisions during an emergency.

85. Routes and exits

Most employers create floor diagrams with arrows that designate all exit route(s). These diagrams should include locations of exits, assembly points, and equipment (such as fire extinguishers, first aid kits, automated external defibrillators (AEDs), and spill kits) that may be needed in an emergency.

86. Table Top Mock Drill

Table Top Mock Drill is a planning tool used as first step in developing and testing contingency plans, for emergencies, business recovery, crisis management, mission planning, etc. It is a suggested methodology used in the US Governments National Incident Management System (NIMS).

87. What Is a Tabletop Exercise?

A tabletop exercise (sometimes shortened to TTX) is a training tool that simulates emergency situations in an informal environment. A facilitator guides exercise participants through a dangerous scenario from the safety of a conference room to practice their response strategies.

88. Incident management

Incident management is the process by which companies identify, prevent, respond to, record, and analyze exposure to health and safety risks in the workplace. Workplace accidents are all too common.

89. An incident management plan (IMP)

An incident management plan (IMP), sometimes called an incident response plan or emergency management plan, is a document that helps an organization return to normal as quickly as possible following an unplanned event.

90. What are the three C's in an incident report?

Training your brain before you find yourself in a high-pressure situation may help you save a life or potentially help someone in pain. There are three basic C's to remember—check, call, and care.

91. What are 3 basic elements in an incident?

The Three Elements of Incident Response: Plan, Team, and Tools.

92. 4 steps To resolve Conflict: CARE

1. Communicate. Open communication is key in a dispute. ...
2. Actively Listen. Listen to what the other person has to say, without interrupting. ...
3. Review Options. Talk over the options, looking for solutions that benefit everyone. ...
4. End with a Win-Win Solution.

93. What are the four C's of conflict?

When it comes to managing conflict remotely, there are four C's that matter: Commitment, Communication, Conflict Resolution, and Camaraderie in a framework developed by attorney, mediator, negotiator and conflict resolution expert Damali Peterman.

94. What are 5 conflict management techniques?

This five different approaches to conflict management and the situations they are most appropriate for. Accommodation. This is a lose/win situation. ...
Compromise. ...
Avoidance. ...
Competition. ...

95. The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA

The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) provides workers' compensation coverage for employment-related injuries and occupational diseases. Benefits include wage replacement, payment for medical care, and where necessary, medical and vocational rehabilitation assistance in returning to work and survivor benefits.

96. Workers' compensation programs

Workers' compensation programs in the United States are state regulated, with laws determined by each state legislative body and implemented by a state agency. The programs provide the payment of lost wages, medical treatment, and rehabilitation services to workers suffering from an occupational injury or disease.


"ALARP" is short for "as low as reasonably practicable". Reasonably practicable involves weighing a risk against the trouble, time and money needed to control it. Thus, ALARP describes the level to which we expect to see workplace risks controlled.


ALARA stands for “as low as reasonably achievable”. ALARA means avoiding exposure to radiation that does not have a direct benefit to you, even if the dose is small. To do this, you can use three basic protective measures in radiation safety: time, distance, and shielding.

99. What is an Experience Modification Rating (EMR)?

EMR, or experience modification rating is a calculation used by insurance firms to price the cost of workers' compensation premiums. The rating reflects a variety lagging indicators, such as injury costs or claim history, and offers a prediction of future risk.

100. How is EMR Calculated?

The EMR is calculated by dividing a company's payroll by classification by 100 and then by a “class rate” determined by the National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI) reflecting the classification's potential risk factor.

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