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CSP 250 Flashcards


RWL, the Recommended Weight Limit

2. Exposure Assessment (Bacteria, parasites, fungi, etc.)

- Water Sampling (Legionella)
- Surface sampling of mold and bacteria
- Air sampling of mold and bacteria

3. The National Electrical Code (NEC), or NFPA 70

The National Electrical Code (NEC), or NFPA 70, is a regionally adoptable standard for the safe installation of electrical wiring and equipment in the United States. It is part of the National Fire Code series published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), a private trade association.

4. Control Strategies (Bacteria, parasites, fungi, mold, etc.)

- ISOLATE source
- LOCATE and CORRECT source
- ENGINEERING controls - biosafety hoods, etc
- ADMINISTRATIVE controls - cleaning procedures, etc

5. Cold Urticaria

Cold urticaria is a disorder in which large red welts called hives (urticaria) form on the skin after exposure to a cold stimulus.
- Itchy Red blotches

6. NIOSH Stands for

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

7. Frostbite

Frostbite is a skin injury that occurs when exposed to extreme low temperatures, causing the freezing of the skin or other tissues, commonly affecting the fingers, toes, nose, ears, cheeks.
- Freezing of body tissue
- White or greyish yellow skin

8. Hypothermia

- General Lowering of body temperature
- Numbness
- Disorientation
- Confusion
- Core body temp 26 degrees to 35 degrees Celsius

9. Cold Illness Protection

- Provide heat source when feasible
- Minimize exposure time
- Protective clothing

10. Fire Tetrahedron - Required Elements for Fire

The fire tetrahedron is a geometric representation of the four properties that must be necessary for a fire to occur within a given situation. These properties include fuel, heat, an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen found in ambient air), and an uninhibited chemical reaction.
- Oxygen
- Ignition source
- Fuel
- Chemical Reaction

11. Fire Chemistry - Surface Fires/Flame Fires

Ground fires are wildfires that occur in the subsurface and consume buried vegetation. As the name suggests, surface fires are wildfires that occur on the surface, consuming low-lying vegetation.
- Surface fire
- solids
- Oxygen
- Fuel
- Heat
- Flame Fires - Vapors or gaseous fuel - This includes the above elements PLUS a CHEMICAL REACTION

12. Fire Behaviour

- VERTICAL Movement
- Temperature differences between outside and inside affect smoke movement
- Outside wind effects gas movements

13. Fire Classification (A, B,C,D,K)

- Class A - Ordinary Materials ("Ash")
- Class B - Flammable liquids ("Boil")
- Class C - Electrical ("Current")
- Class D - Metals, sodium ("Dust" - like metal dust)
- Class K - Cooking oil ("Kitchen")

14. Flammability of Gases

- Flammable Gases - burn under NORMAL concentrations of oxygen in air
- Non-flammable Gases - NOT burn under NORMAL concentrations
- Inert Gases - DO NOT combust in ANY conditions

15. Toxins

Biological - naturally occurring. A toxin is a naturally occurring organic poison produced by metabolic activities of living cells or organisms. Toxins occur especially as a protein or conjugated protein. The term toxin was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919) and is derived from the word toxic.

16. Toxicants

Man made. Toxicants can be found in the air, soil, water, or food. Humans can be exposed to environmental toxicants.

17. LD Lo (Toxicology)

Lowest lethal dose for test subjects

18. LD50 (Toxicology)

Lowest lethal dose for test subjects

19. LC50 (Toxicology)

Lethal concentration at which 50% of test subjects die

20. NOAEL (Toxicology)

No Observable Adverse Effect Level

21. LOAEL (Toxicology)

Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level

22. IDLH (Toxicology)

Immediately Dangerous to Health and Life

23. Dose-Response Curve

- Non-linear
- You will get more of a response with increased dose

24. Carcinogen

- Cancer causing
- Partial List
- Benzene
- Asbestos
- Cadmium
- Radon
- Benzidene

25. Teratogen

Substance that causes birth defects in a developing fetus

26. Mutagen

- Substance that may cause genetic mutations
- Can also be carcinogens
- Ex:
- Lead
- Radon

27. Acute Affects

Adverse effects from short term exposure

28. Chronic Affects

Adverse health effects from long term exposure to a toxin

29. Latency Period

The time between first exposure and onset of disease NOT necessarily symptoms

30. Neurotoxins

Toxic to nervous system

31. Hepatotoxin

Toxic to liver. It can be a side-effect, but hepatotoxins are also found naturally, such as microcystins and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, or in laboratory environments, such as carbon tetrachloride, or far more pervasively in the form of ethanol (drinking alcohol).

32. Renal Toxin

Toxic to kidneys (nephrotoxin)

33. Endocrine Disruptor

Substances that disturb hormones

34. IARC Carcinogen Classifications

IARC Carcinogen Classifications Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans

35. Asbestos (4 types)


36. Benzene

- Simplest aromatic hydrocarbon
- Exposure routes
- Inhalation
- Skin absorption
- Carcinogen: associated with LEUKEMIA

37. Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles

- Paving, roofing
- Carcinogenic in lungs, kidneys, skin
- Can also cause acute affects in BLADDER

38. Cotton Dust

Can cause Byssinosis (brown lung disease)

39. Bagiosis

Disease associated with moldy sugar cane. Bacterial vaginosis is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria.

40. Metals (toxicity)

ORGANIC metals MORE toxic than inorganic metals

41. Chelation (metals)

- Method to treat metals
- Binds to metals and excretes them
- Also binds to ESSENTIAL METALS though

42. Cadmium

- Smelting, electroplating, soldering
- Acute exposure: can cause pulmonary edema
- Chronic exposure: can cause emphysema, lung cancer

43. Inorganic Lead

- Firing ranges, battery production
- Neurotoxin
- Affects mental development of children
- Detect in blood

44. Atoms

Composed of NUCLEUS and ELECTRONS (-) 219-220 in materials has good diagrams

45. Nucleus

Composed of PROTONS (+) and NEUTRONS

46. Isotope

Not every atom of a specific element has the same number of NEUTRONS

47. Ion

- Atom or molecule with an electrical charge
- The number of electrons is not necessarily equal to number of protons
- If more electrons then NEGATIVE charge
- If more protons then POSITIVE charge

48. Atomic Number

- Number of PROTONS
- Defines the element

49. Atomic Mass

Number of PROTONS AND NEUTRONS in nucleus

50. Mole

- Avogadro's number of _____ units
- 6.02 x 10 (to the 23 power)

51. Molecule

- Two or more ATOMS bound together
- Basic unit of NON-ELEMENTAL substances

52. Gram Molecular Weight (MW)

Mass of 1 mole of molecules

53. Valence Electrons

- Electrons arranged in shells around the nucleus
- All elements (except H and He) need 8 electrons in the outer shell

54. Bonding (atoms)

Atoms bonded together by sharing or exchanging of electrons

55. Ionic Bonds

An exchange of electrons so that an element has 8 electrons in its outer shell

56. Covalent Bonds

- Sharing of electrons
- Outer electrons of elements are shared between the atoms to fill the outer electron shell

57. Chemical Reactions

Process in which products (new chemicals) are produced from reactants (old chemicals)

58. Oxidizer

A substance that enhances a reaction - usually by adding oxygen

59. Pressure and Sound Pressure

Doubling pressure increases sound pressure level by 6db

60. Noise PEL & TLV

OSHA - 90 dB for 8 HOURS
ACGIH - 85 dB for 8 HOURS

61. Sound Intensity and Distance from Source

Sound intensity level will decrease by 6db if you double the distance from the source

62. Frequency Ranges

- Humans can hear from 20hz to 20,000hz
- Speech range - 500 - 3000hz

63. Acids and Bases

- Acid ph LESS than 7
- Base ph GREATER than 7
- Hint "Turn up the base"

64. Exothermic Reactions

Produce Heat. Exothermic reactions are reactions that release energy into the environment in the form of heat. Exothermic reactions feel warm or hot or may even be explosive. More energy is released making chemical bonds than is used breaking them.

65. Endothermic Reactions

Absorb Heat. Endothermic reactions are chemical reactions in which the reactants absorb heat energy from the surroundings to form products. These reactions lower the temperature of their surrounding area, thereby creating a cooling effect.

66. Vapor Density

- Mass per unit volume of a vapor compared to air
- VD > 1 = Sink
- VD < 1 = Float

67. IARC Carcinogen Classifications Group 1:

IARC Carcinogen Classifications Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans

68. Specific Gravity

Ratio of density of a substance compared to water's density
- SG GREATER than 1 SINKS in water
- SG LESS than 1 FLOATS on water

69. Engineering Controls for Noise

- Porous material
- Diaphagramatic - Thin piece of material
- Resonant: Pocket of air
- Barriers
- Baffle: barrier between source and person
- Partial enclosure: Top on the baffle
- Complete enclosure

70. Noise Reduction Rating (NRR)

- Devices reduce dB by the rating
- Ex: NRR of 33 will lower 90 to 57

71. Dose Equivalent

- How much biological damage expected from Absorbed Dose
- Rem = Unit of Dose Equivalent
- Rem = QF x Rad

72. Absorbed Dose

- Energy deposited into a tissue as the result of exposure
- Unit of Absorbed Dose= Rad

73. Dose Rate (US and International)

- US workers allowed whole body dose rate of 5 rem/yr
- ICRP (international)= 2 rem/yr


As Low As Reasonably Achievable

75. Shielding

- Shield between radiation source and worker
- Half value layer
- Thickness of a material that reduces half the photons entering the material

76. Beta Shielding

Plastic and Glass preferred
- Beta particles can create x-rays hitting certain materials

77. Ionizing Radiation

- Alpha (particle)
- LARGEST radiation particle - Helium nucleus
- Stopped by outer layers of skin BUT extremely dangerous inside
- Think the Russian spy in the UK
- Quality Factor (QF) = 20
- Beta (particle)
- High-speed electrons
- Released in decay process of neutron transforming into proton - QF = 1

78. Doubling Rates OSHA and ACGIH

OSHA - 5 dB
ACGIH - 3 dB
- Each time sound level increases by the doubling amount, exposure time limit decreases by 50%

79. Dose Measurements

- Film badge
- Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD)
- Measures energy absorbed during exposure
- Commonly a badge or ring

80. Non-Ionizing Radiation

- Microwave
- Radio Frequency
- Laser
- Infrared
- Ultraviolet Light

81. Electromagnetic Spectrum

- Right of the Spectrum (shorter wavelegth) = ionizing radiation
- Left of the Spectrum (longer wavelength) = Non-ionizing radiation

82. Conservation of Airflow

- Q1 + Q2 = Q3
- If you have two airflows coming together into the same system, they are ADDED

83. Energy/Pressure in Ventilation

Energy in ventilation IS pressure

84. Kinetic/Potential Energy in Ventilation

- Kinetic Energy is VELOCITY pressure
- Potential Energy is STATIC pressure

85. Velocity Pressure

- The force applied by moving air hitting a surface
- Velocity pressure is always POSITIVE

86. Static Pressure

- The force exerted by air molecules striking a container's surface
- In ventilation, we are concerned with RELATIVE static pressure
- What is the static pressure in the duct relative to the atmosphere outside the duct?
- Air goes from HIGH to LOW pressure
- Change in static pressure causes air to move

87. Ionizing Radiation Measurement Devices

- Geiger-mueller tube
- Measures BETA and GAMMA radiation
- Scintillation detector
- Sample placed in vial with scintillation liquid

88. Pressure Change Through a Ventilation System

Total Pressure DECREASES as air moves through system

89. Static Pressure, Velocity Pressure, and Total Pressure as Air Moves through Fan (upstream and downstream)

Upstream of Fan
- VP = positive
- SP = negative
- TP = negative
Downstream of Fan
- VP = positive
- SP = positive
- TP = positive

90. Energy in Ventilation Systems

- Energy is used to accelerate air into the system
- Energy is used to overcome resistance from:
- Friction along the walls
- Turbulence in the air

91. 2 Hood Categories

- External Hoods
- Most common is CANOPY hood
- Think vent in your kitchen
- Enclosing Hoods
- Most effective hood

92. Metabolic Heat

Energy generated while the body is active

93. Convection

Transfer of heat directly to the objects directly contacting the body

94. Radiation

Transfer of heat through infrared radiation

95. Evaporation

Transfer of heat to the environment through evaporative cooling

96. Hood Entry Losses

- Energy is converted from PE to KE at the hood
- There are energy losses during the conversion
- Total energy associated with accelerating air into the system is the HOOD STATIC PRESSURE

97. Flammable Solids

- Biomass - wood, wood products, fabric
- Metal - Most metals burn under certain conditions
- "ium" metals
- Plastics
- Produce toxic gases

98. Flash Point

Minimum temperature at which liquid gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with the air near surface of liquid

99. Post GHS Flammable Liquid (OSHA)

- GHS = Globally Harmonized System
- Liquid with flash point at or below 199.4 F
- Divided into 4 categories

100. Post GHS Categories

1 is MOST hazardous
1: Flashpoint < 73.4 F / Boiling point < 95 F
2: Flashpoint 95 F
3: 140 F > Flashpoint > 73.4 F
4: 199 F > Flashpoint > 140 F

101. Flammability Limits

- Lower Flammability Limit (LFL)
- Minimum vapor concentration supporting combustion
- Upper Flammability Limit (UFL)
- Maximum vapor concentration supporting combustion
- Must be between LFL and UFL to be flammable
- Percentage of UFL and LFL
- Find the percentage and multiply by 10 (to the 6th power) to get PPM

102. NFPA Diamond (Red, Blue, Yellow, White)

- Blue = Health
- Red = Fire
- Yellow = Reactivity
- White = Special
- Ex. Reactive with water, etc.
- Scale of 1-4 (4 being worst)

103. Hazardous Area Classifications (Fire)

- Class I: Flammable liquids, vapors or gasses
- Class II: Combustible dusts likely to be present
- Class III: Easily ignitable fibers -> Cotton
- Also have Divisions
- Division I: Conditions exist under normal conditions
- Division II: Do not expect under normal conditions -> unless some kind of accident or maintenance failure

104. NFPA 101, Life Safety Code

NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, shall be known as the Life Safety Code®, is cited as such, and shall be referred to herein as “this Code” or “the Code.” 1.1.2 Danger to Life from Fire.

105. Methods to Prevent Fires

- Oily rags kept in containers with lids - can spontaneously ignite
- Exits free of material
Material Storage
- Flammable Liquids
- Special Storerooms
- Special Storage Cabinets
- Safety Cans - 5 or less gallons
- Intrinsically safe equipment
- Low voltage
- Non spark producing

106. Extinguishing Fires

- Remove oxygen
- CO2 does this
- Remove fuel
- Remove heat
- Water does this
- Stop chemical reaction
- Ex. Using halon

107. Fire Load

Max heat released if all combustibles in area burn

108. Smoke Detectors

- Respond to particles passing through a light beam
- Smoke detectors may be placed in HVAC

109. Flame Detectors

- Sense LIGHT from flame
- Infrared or UV detection

110. Ionization Detectors (Smoke)

- EARLIEST possible detection
- Particles intercept ionized air causing change in electrical current

111. Heat Detectors

Detect presence of fire through heat

112. Fire Alarm System Types

- Local: Warns local residents
- Auxiliary
- Also notifies municipal fire alarm system
- Remote
- Sends signal to remote location who notifies local fire department
- Proprietary
- Alarm goes to fire department and a location owned by the property owner

113. Means of Egress (Exit) Terms

- Exit access - path leading to exit
- Exit - protected space separated from other parts of building
- Exit discharge - last segment between exit and land outside

114. Fire Exit Requirements

- Each public area must have at least 2 exits
- No more than 50% of occupants discharged on street
- Exit doors 32" wide

115. Determinants for Severity of Electrical Injuries

Current flow and time determine the extent of injuries from an electrical shock
- Amount of Current
- Route through body
- Time body contacts electrical current

116. Resistance (Electricity)

- Friction resisting electrical current
- Larger surface area = LESS resistance
- Shorter cord = LESS resistance

117. Arc Flash

- Short circuit of electricity through the air
- Equipment explodes
- Personnel are severely burned

118. Bonding

Electricity connecting two or more pieces of equipment together.
- Prevents static charge building up between the pieces

119. General Construction Tips (Electricity)

- Keep cranes AT LEAST 10 feet away from live electrical lines
- Additional 4' for every 10,000 volts above 50k

120. Title V CAA - Air Pollution

- Bring all air operating permits together
- Public review
- 5-year renewal

121. Air Pollution Control Methods

- Prevent
- Dilute
- Collect + Dispose
- Chemical change (combustion)

122. Baghouse

- Filter that traps particulate matter
- Require large spaces
- Temperature restrictions based on type of bag
- MOST COMMON form of air pollution control
- Particle Sizes > .25 microns

123. SCBA (Supplied Air System)

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
Rule: ANY TIME concentrations exceed or are equal to a chemical's IDLH we must use a supplied air system (SCBA).
1910.134 - Respiratory protection.

124. Protection Factors (Air Purifying PPE)

Protection Factor (PF) = (the concentration of harmful substances on the outside of the mask) / (concentration under mask) = 1 / Penetration. the Assigned Protection Factors (APF) - the decrease of the concentration of harmful substances in the inhaled air, which (is expected) to be provided with timely and proper use of a certified respirator of certain types (design) by taught and trained workers (after individual selection with a tight-fitting mask and fit testing), when the employer performs an effective respiratory protective device programme.
Half Face: 10
Full Face: 50
PAPR: 1000
Airline: 1000
SCBA: 10,000

125. PPE Levels

OSHA defines four levels of full-body HazMat protection. Level A is the most protective and Level D is the least protective. The regulations related to HazMat PPE levels are found under §1910.120 Appendix B.
A. A: Most protection; FULL BODY SUIT includes SCBA
B. B: All types of protection; no full body suit; does include supplied air/SCBA
C. C: All types of protection, but no supplied air; does include full or half face respiratory protection
D: Work clothes; no chemical protective clothing; can have some sort of filter/mask

126. Risk

Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including changes in circumstances) and the associated likelihood of occurrence or Probability AND severity of a negative event

127. Risk Assessment

Estimation of the degree of risk, Risk assessment is the process of analysing potential events that may result in the loss of an asset, loan, or investment.

128. Environmental Assessments

Environmental assessment is the process by which the consequences and effects of natural processes and human activities upon the environment are estimated, evaluated or predicted1. Assessments can include within their scope ways to minimise, mitigate, or eliminate those effects, and even to compensate for their impact1,2. Usually done in conjunction with real estate transactions.
Phase I assessment - Identifies environmental liabilities.
Phase II Assessment

129. Residual Risk

The risk that remains after preventative measures have been taken. Residual risk = inherent risk - impact of risk controls

130. BLEVE

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion. A boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion is an explosion caused by the rupture of a vessel containing a pressurized liquid that has reached temperature above its boiling point.

131. Minimum Oxygen Level Required to Wear an Air Purifying Respirator

19.5% Oxygen Level. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA, determined the optimal range of oxygen in the air for humans runs between 19.5 and 23.5 percent. Based on OSHA guidelines, a confined space is considered to have safe oxygen levels if readings are between 20.8-21 percent, while a space with readings of less than 19.5 percent are considered to be oxygen deficient.

132. Visible Wavelengths on the EM Spectrum

400-780 nm. The visible light spectrum is the segment of the electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can view. More simply, this range of wavelengths is called visible light. Typically, the human eye can detect wavelengths from 380 to 700 nanometres.

133. Maximum Hose Length for Airline Respirator

300 feet = Regarding airline (Type-C) respirators, NIOSH states the maximum allowable length of hose to be used from the Point of Attachment (POA) is 300 feet. The POA is the location on an air filteration system that contains the air pressure regulator, the pressure gauge, safety relief valve and outlet manifold with quick connect couplings.

134. Leading vs Lagging Indicators

Lagging indicators are reactive in nature. They measure the effectiveness of a safety program after the facts. Typical lagging indicators include the number of incidents, injuries, days away from work (DAFW), etc. In contrast, leading indicators are proactive in nature

135. Air Pollution Modelling

Air pollution modelling (APM) is being developed and used to better understand, investigate, assess, and regulate the quality of the atmospheric environment and the distribution of toxic pollutants which are often used in ecotoxicology. Mathematical prediction of ambient concentrations of air pollution Dispersion modelling

136. Air Pollution Assessments

Assessments of the health risk from air pollution estimate and communicate the impact of exposure to air pollution on the population’s health. Such assessments may also include the impact of changes in air quality resulting from air quality improvement measures (WHO, 2016).
- Smoke Reading
- Stack Testing
- Area Monitoring

137. Catastrophic Release

Major, uncontrolled emission, fire or explosion involving one or more highly hazardous chemicals that presents danger to employees in the workplace

138. Process Safety Information

- Requirement of Process Safety Management
- PSM refers to federal requirements for processes that use highly hazardous chemicals.
- Toxicity
- Physical Data
- Reactivity Data
- Corrosivity data
- Thermal and chemical stability data

139. Process Technology Information

- Block flow diagram
- Shows flow of process
- Process chemistry
- Safe limits for temperatures, pressures, flows
- Evaluation of deviation consequences

140. Controlling Electrical Hazards

- Locate equipment away from people and hazardous material
- Physical controls
- Shielding
- Proper wire size
- Overcurrent devices
- Fuses, circuit breakers

141. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)

A GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) is an automatic device that offers personal protection against lethal electrical shock or electrocution. Detects difference in current between 2 conductors. Shuts off circuit of if there is a difference

142. Static Electricity

Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material or between materials. The charge remains until it can move away by means of an electric current or electrical discharge. - Electrical charges build up on the surface of materials
- Charge discharges as arc through the air
- Builds up in dry air
- Moving fluids belts, sliding materials
- Controlled through GROUNDING and BONDING

143. Grounding

Electricity connecting to a piece of equipment to ground. Static grounding prevents the build-up of static electricity reducing the chance of fires or explosions where hazardous materials are handled. Lightning protection grounding helps protect structures and equipment from direct strikes.

144. ACGIH

the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)

145. Common Air Permitting Terms (NSPS, PSD, BDAT, MACT)

NSPS: New Source Performance Standards
PSD: Prevention of Significant Deterioration
BDAT: Best Developed Available Technology
MACT: Maximum Achievable Control Technology

146. Pitot Tube

A pitot tube (pitot probe) measures fluid flow velocity. It was invented by a French engineer, Henri Pitot, in the early 18th century, and was modified to its modern form in the mid-19th century by a French scientist, Henry Darcy. An open-ended right-angled tube pointing into the flow of a fluid and used to measure pressure

147. Adiabatic Rate

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is a type of thermodynamic process that occurs without transferring heat or mass between the thermodynamic system and its environment. In dry air, the adiabatic lapse rate is 9.8 °C/km (5.4 °F per 1,000 ft). How we would expect gas to behave
- Increase in pressure in gases = temp rise
- Decrease in pressure in gases = temp lower
- Higher altitudes = less pressure = lower temp

148. SCBA (Supplied Air System)

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
Rule: ANY TIME concentrations exceed or are equal to a chemical's IDLH we must use a supplied air system (SCBA).
1910.134 - Respiratory protection.

149. Protection Factors (Air Purifying PPE)

Protection Factor (PF) = (the concentration of harmful substances on the outside of the mask) / (concentration under mask) = 1 / Penetration. the Assigned Protection Factors (APF) - the decrease of the concentration of harmful substances in the inhaled air, which (is expected) to be provided with timely and proper use of a certified respirator of certain types (design) by taught and trained workers (after individual selection with a tight-fitting mask and fit testing), when the employer performs an effective respiratory protective device programme.
Half Face: 10
Full Face: 50
PAPR: 1000
Airline: 1000
SCBA: 10,000

150. Cyclone (Air Pollution Control Device)

- Centrifugal Force
- Particle Size > 10 microns
- Not very efficient

151. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) (Air Pollution Control Device)

- Uses electrostatic attraction
- Requires large space
- Particle size > .25 microns
- Used by power plants

152. Settling Chamber (Air Pollution Control Device)

- Oldest method of mechanical collection
- Low efficiency

153. Scrubber (Air Pollution Control Device)

- Inertial Impingement
- Water used to scrub
- Good for very small particles
- Particles > 5µm

154. Venturi Scrubber (Air Pollution Control Device)

- Inertial Impingement
- Particles > 1µm
-See photo on p. 332

155. Adsorber (Air Pollution Control Device)

Vapours and gases adsorbed on surface of porous medium

156. Absorber (Air Pollution Control Device)

- Similar to scrubber
- Gases and vapours absorbed into liquid

157. TCLP (Landfills)

- Toxic Characteristics Leaching Procedure
- Simulates leaching in landfill
- Used to determine which type landfill appropriate

158. Phosphates (Run off)

- Produced by agricultural application of fertilizer
- Cause Algal blooms

159. Spill Prevention Plans

- Above-ground storage (ex. diesel tanks)
- Design for containment of spill
- Emergency Response
- Regular inspection of equipment

160. Water Cleaning Devices

- Clarifier
- Settles solids
- Filtration

161. Cradle to Grave Responsibility: Haz Waste

Remember that company responsible for Haz waste until disposed of

162. Hazardous Waste Types

- Listed
- Characteristic
- Flammable, reactive, corrosive, etc
- Universal
- Batteries, mercury

163. Process Hazard Analysis

- Looks to identify, evaluate and control hazards
- PHA must be performed every 5 years
- Performed by team with knowledge of engineering and process operations and must INCLUDE ONE LINE EMPLOYEE

164. Eye Protection

- Must meet ANSI requirements
Safety Glasses should:
- Hard lenses
- Impact resistant
- Permanent side shields

165. Considerations with Contractors

- Know safety record
- Evaluate contractor performance
- Inform contract employees of hazards
- Safe work practices with contractors


- Must meet ANSI requirements
Safety Glasses should:
- Hard lenses
- Impact resistant
- Permanent side shields

167. Foot Protection

- Steel Toed boots
- Chemical Resistant boots
- Foundry shoes - no fasteners allow quick removal

168. Hand Protection

- Rubber Gloves
- Protect against many chemicals
- Metal Mesh Gloves
- Used where hands in close proximity to sharp objects
- Anti-vibration Gloves

169. 3 Classes of Hard Hats

- Class G: General - protect from falling objects and electric shock from low voltages
- Class E: Electrical - protect from falling objects and electric shock from high voltages
- Class C: Conductive - falling objects and no electric shock protection

170. Material Considerations for Protective Equipment

- Penetration: Contaminant moving through holes in material
- Degradation: Contaminant chemically altering material
- Permeation: Contaminant diffusing through material

171. 2 Types of Fall Protection

- Passive: no action required by worker
- Active: workers must take definitive action

172. Active Fall Protection

- Safety Belts
- Safety Harness and lanyard
- Distributes forces over entire body
- Should absorb forces

173. Grade of Breathing Air for Breathing Apparatuses

Grade D Air

174. 3 Types of Air Purifying Respirator

- Half Face: mouth, nose
- Full Face: mouth, nose, eyes
- PAPR (Powered Air Purifying Respirator): fan pulling air through a filter

175. Risk Management Process Steps (5)

1. Risk Identification
2. Risk Analysis
3. Risk Elimination or Reduction
4. Financing Risk
5. Administering the Risk Management Process

176. Severity

Not all accidents have same consequences

177. Experience Modification Rate

Insurance rating based on risk of company
EMR = 1: Claims in line with industry
EMR < 1: Claims lower than indusrty
EMR > 1: Claims greater than industry

178. 2 Types of Warranty

Express: express claims about performance characteristics
Implied: Merchantability (fit for ordinary use); Fitness for particular purpose

179. Privity

- Direct relationship between injured party and party whose negligence caused the accident
- Privity broken in 90s --> car manufacturer sold car to dealer who sold to consumer --> manufacturer still responsible for failing to inspect car even though no direct relationship to consumer

180. Misuse and Foreseeability

Manufacturer can be responsible for injuries from misuse IF foreseeable (manufacturer could have reasonably anticipated misuse)

181. Risk Management

Decision making process to control and minimize risks

182. Type II Level Sound Meter Accuracy

+- 2 dB

183. Legionella Risk Factors

Weakened Immune System:
- Elderly
- Young
- Infirm

184. OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard

Intended to protect any employee involved in activities where there is a potential for being exposed to blood or body fluids

185. Components of a Combustible Dust Explosion (3)

1. Fuel
2. Oxygen
3. Heat/Spark

186. Deflagration

A chemical reaction that has an associated pressure wave that has the speed less than the speed of sound

187. Standard Threshold Shift

A permanent reduction of 10 dB in EITHER ear

188. 2 Major Groups of Machine Safeguards

1. Mechanical Transmission
2. Point of Operation

189. When Management of Change Required in OSHA Process Safety Management Standard

Management of change required when replacement is not a replacement in kind

190. NIOSH Lifting Equation

Designed to meet specific lifting-related criteria that encompass biomechanical, work physiology, and psychophysical assumptions and data

191. Personal Sample

Type of air sampling performed when an employee wears a sampling device that draws air across a filter media for sample collection

192. 3 Bones in Middle Ear

Incus, Stapes, and Malleus (Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup)

193. Histoplasmosis

An infectious disease caused by inhaling the spores of a fungus called H. capsulatum. Not contagious.

194. The NIOSH Lifting Equation load constant (LC)

The NIOSH Lifting Equation always uses a load constant (LC) of 51 pounds, which represents the maximum recommended load weight to be lifted.

195. Revised NIOSH lifting equation HM means

HM, the Horizontal Multiplier factor

196. IARC Carcinogen Classifications Group 2A:

IARC Carcinogen Classifications Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans

197. NFPA 10

NFPA 10 provides the minimum requirements for portable fire extinguishers to ensure they are maintained and are ready to be used as they are intended for, to extinguish fires.

198. Power Transmission Guards

Power transmission guarding protects your operators and others in the work area from pinch points and entanglement hazards created by uncovered belts, pulleys, shafts, and blades. Ex. Guards of Drive Trains

199. Presence Sensing Guards

A presence sensing machine guard is one which, without placing a physical barrier between the operator and the dangerous parts of the machine, senses the approach of a body or part of a body.
- Mats
- Photoelectric Sensors
- Lasers

200. Restraints

Pull-backs and restraints press safety systems either prevent an operator from reaching the point of operation or pull the operator away from the hazard. Physically prevent entry into device

201. Two Hand Control

Two-hand controls can be used as safeguarding devices in the single stoke mode of operation on part revolution clutch presses. Employees must use both hands to operate

202. Hand Feed Tools

machine safety hand feeding tools have been a mainstay for operator safety when using mechanical power presses and other metal fabrication machines. Tools used to feed products into and out of machine

203. Robots

A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. - Used heavily in auto industry
- Must protect against entire reach of robot

204. Abrasive Wheels

Abrasive Wheels: Grinding, deburring, cutting and polishing wheels From light buffing, deburring and finishing to heavy cutting and grinding, Perform RING TEST prior to installation.
- Tests the integrity of the abrasive grinding wheel
- Want to hear ring when tapping wheel

205. Abrasive Wheel Work Rests

Work rests shall be kept adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of 1/8 inch (0.3175 cm) to prevent the work from being jammed between the wheel and the rest

206. Lockout Tagout Procedures (Electricity)

- Control of hazardous energy
- Zero energy state - needs to be taken down to this state
- WRITTEN program - need to have a written program
- Training
- Must be "competent person" (OSHA)

207. "Competent Person" (OSHA)

An OSHA "competent person" is defined as "one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them" [ 29 CFR 1926.32 (f) ]..

208. 7 Types of Hazardous Energy

1. Potential
2. Kinetic
3. Mechanica
4. Electrical
5. Pneumatic
6. Hydraulic
7. Steam

209. Authorized Worker

An Authorised Worker whose employer’s work premises is interstate, or who is self-employed, a sole-trader, an independent contractor or sub-contractor, or a person appointed to or holding a statutory office, may issue themselves with an Authorised Worker Permit, signed as both the employer and worker.

210. Affected Worker

Any worker in the area where equipment is locked out Term. An affected employee is important. They are the employees who work in the area of a potential hazard, and who might be affected by the hazards created by the work being done, but may not be directly involved.

211. Control Point

Valve, switch, flange or other point on equipment used to isolate the equipment

212. Lock

Lock used ONLY for isolating equipment

213. Basic Lockout Procedure

1. Notify impacted employees
2. Power down equipment
3. Control energy as required
4. Try operating equipment
5. Perform work
6. Remove controls
7. Verify operation 8. Notify affected employees

214. Wooden Ladders Requirements

Portable Wood Ladders: Stepladders – Maximum 20’ Type I – Industrial – 3-20’ Type II – Commercial – 3-12’ Type III – Household – 3-6’

215. Metal Ladder Requirements

- 12" centre spacing for rungs
- Non-slip material on bottom FOUR rungs

216. Portable Step Ladder Maximum Length

20 feet

217. Type I Stepladder

- Industrial (utilities, contractors)
- 3 to 20 feet

218. Type II Stepladder

- Commercial (Painters, offices, light industrial)
- 3 to 12 feet

219. Type III Stepladder

- Household use
- 3 to 6 feet

220. Extension Ladder Required Dimensions

- Max Length = 60 feet - Height to base distance ratio: 4:1
- Ladder must extend 3 FEET ABOVE POINT OF SUPPORT
- Overlap Requirements:
- Ladder <(or equal) 36 ft: 3 FEET
- 36 Feet < Ladder <(or equal) 48 ft: 4 FEET
- 48 Feet < Ladder <(or equal) 60 ft: 5 FEET

221. Extension Ladder Safety Precautions

Extension ladders use to reach another surface, like a roof, must extend at least; Maintain three points of contact when climbing an extension ladder. Two hands + one foot or two feet + one hands.
- INSPECT prior to each use
- Feet set on NONSLIP base

222. Fixed Ladder Safety Requirements

Ladder must be TREATED to prevent corrosion in atmospheres that lead to corrosion.
- UNIFORM STEPS < (or equal) 1 FOOT apart
- Pitch not to exceed 90 DEGREES
- Recommended Pitch: 75 to 90 degrees

223. Fixed Ladder Cage Requirements

- Ladders > 20 FEET must have cage
- Ladders > 20 feet must have LANDING every 30 FEET
- Cage starts 7' - 8' from the ground
- Cage must extend 42 INCHES above LANDING

224. Stairway Safety Requirements

- Must have railing on all exposed sides
- Angle between 30 to 60 DEGREES
- Uniform spacing of steps

225. Standard Railing Requirements

- Top Rail, Mid Rail, and Posts
- Vertical height: 42 INCHES
- Mid-Rail height: 21 INCHES
- Withstand 200 LBS of horizontal force

226. Standard Toe board

OSHA standard 1910.28 defines toe board requirements for “employers to provide protection for each employee exposed to fall and falling object hazards.”
- 4 INCHES vertical height
- 1/4 INCH clearance above floor

227. Crane Safety Guidelines

- INSPECT all machinery and equipment prior to each use
- Attachments used with crane should NOT EXCEED MANUFACTURER'S RATING
- NEVER work under loads

228. Power Lines and Cranes

- Safest method is to ground at point of work
- IF you can't de-energize
- Use a default clearance between the crane and the lines of 20 FEET - OSHA has defined distances as well (if voltage known) - Minimum distance is 10 feet for up to 50 volts - then goes up 5 feet for every 150 volts up to 500 volts. - From 500 - 1000 volts, goes up 10 feet for every 250 volts

229. Illumination for Safety

Illumination for Safety refers to the proper amount of illumination required for a person to detect a hazard and take appropriate action to mitigate that hazard. It is intended for safe navigation of pedestrians while on foot, bike, or other normal means of non-motorized transportation.
- Unit for illumination is the footcandle (fc)
- High hazard areas
- 5fc in high activity areas
- 2fc in low activity areas
- Low hazard Areas
- 1fc in high activity level
- .5fc in low activity level

230. Colours for Markings (Red, Yellow, Green, Black/White, Orange, Blue, Magenta)

Red: Danger, fire equipment
Yellow: Caution
Green: First Aid, Safety Equipment
Black/White: Traffic Markings
Orange: Dangerous Parts
Blue: Information
Magenta: Radiation Hazards

231. First Two Steps in Training Process

1. Needs Assessment
2. Training Objectives

232. Needs Assessment (training) Definition

- Determination as to whether training is correct response to organization's needs
- A "Gap analysis" of current results and desired results Term

233. Hierarchy of Controls ("ESEAP")


234. Solutions to Skill/Knowledge Issues

- Training
- Information
- Job Aids
- Coaching
- Mentoring

235. Solutions to Environmental Issues

- Redesign of Job
- New tools
- New technology

236. Important Training Objectives

- Clearly state what STUDENTS WILL GAIN from training
- Objectives must be MEASURABLE
- Ex. Identify 5 hazards on the MSDS

237. Four Components of a Training Performance Objective

1. WHO is being trained?
2. WHAT should they be able to do?
3. Under what CONDITIONS should they be able to do it?
4. How well must they PERFORM?

238. Most/Least Effective Methods for Retention

Most: Practicing material
Least: Reading material

239. Ways that Active Participants Learn Best

- Hands on Learning
- Participating in simulations
- Field Trips
- Drills

240. Ways that Reflective Observers Learn Best

- Reading manuals
- Watching videos
- Listening to lectures

241. Recordkeeping Elements

- Maintain records of all training in employee work history
- Include: (1) TRAINING Attended (2) DATE Attended (3) PURPOSE of Training

242. Order of Math Operations (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Suzy)


243. Static Muscular Effort

Static muscle work refers to the capacity to maintain physical exertion throughout an assigned task, requiring prolonged contraction at the site of a particular muscle group (s) without corresponding relaxation to relieve tension. Muscles have a long state of contraction - can lead to deterioration of joints, ligaments, tendons

244. Dynamic Muscular Effort

The Dynamic Effort Method of training is defined as lifting a submaximal weight with maximal effort. By training to move a submaximal weight with as much velocity as possible, the lifter develops greater force output than they would by lifting a heavier load slowly. This increases overall strength. Muscles constantly moving

245. Musculoskeletal Disorders

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are conditions that can affect your muscles, bones, and joints. MSDs include tendinitis carpal tunnel syndrome osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
- Disorders of muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints
- Not typically a result of acute event

246. Occupational Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders ("RJFCV")

- Repetition/duration
Less than 30 sec/cycle
More than 1,000 parts per shift
- Joint deviation
Raised elbows.
Bent wrists.
- Force
High amount of hand force
Hand grasping
Mechanical stress

247. Higher Risk Body Parts

- Soft tissue
- Muscle, tendon
- Nerves
- Blood vessels
- Lower back

248. Tendon

Connects muscle to bone

249. Ligament

Connects bone to bone ("BLB")

250. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

- Carpal tunnel on the palmar side of the wrist contains tendons, nerve, etc
- Swelling of tendon pinches nerve

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