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ASP 200+50 Flashcards

1. Water Management Hierarchy

Water Management Hierarchy (WMH) is a hierarchy of water conservation priorities. Levels of the hierarchy from the highest to the lowest in terms of the priority for water conservation include elimination, reduction, outsourcing/reuse, and regeneration

2. EPA - The Hazard Ranking System

The Hazard Ranking System is a scoring system used to evaluate potential relative risks to public health and the environment from releases or threatened releases of hazardous wastes at uncontrolled waste sites.

3. Pinch analysis

Pinch analysis is a methodology for minimising energy consumption of chemical processes by calculating thermodynamically feasible energy targets (or minimum energy consumption) and achieving them by optimising heat recovery systems, energy supply methods and process operating conditions.

4. BCSP Code of Ethics - Conduct

Conduct yourself fairly and impartially with responsibility and integrity. Avoid conduct that would discredit the profession

5. an algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation.

6. safety culture

“safety culture” mostly refers to individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies regarding safety,

7. safety climate

“safety climate” is mainly used to describe the expressed ideas, the tools and techniques used in general by the organization in order to confirm its compliance to safety.

8. Incidents

Incidents are unplanned events that take place on the worksite which may result in an injury and/or property loss or damage.

9. Leading Indicators

Leading Indicators are measurable, proactive pieces of information/data to help track trends or patterns to avoid future risks.

10. Toolbox Talks

Toolbox Talks are a type of safety meeting to address specific safety themes on a fixed cadence, whether daily, weekly, bi-weekly or monthly.

11. Corrective Actions

Corrective Actions are tasks completed to help prevent a potential risk or hazard.

12. Silica Exposure

When quartz is cut or drilled, the dust that's produced contains silica. When silica dust is inhaled, it can lead to lung disease and lung cancer. To avoid silica exposure, workers should wear proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).

13. Subpart AA of 29 CFR 1926

This OSHA subpart protects construction workers from confined space hazards that are not covered in Subpart P - Excavations.

14. Ergonomics

The study of worker and employee efficiency.

15. Flammable & Combustible Liquids

Can easily be ignited in the air at ambient temperatures. Flammable and combustible liquids can easily burn and they're classified based on their flashpoint, or the temperature they can be ignited at.

16. Hazardous Waste Operations

The cleaning up of hazardous materials at uncontrolled waste sites. All employers must have a Hazardous Waste Operations plan in place to identify, evaluate and control safety and health hazards.

17. Non-Conformances

Non-Conformances with policies or procedures are when certain elements do not meet the policies and procedures outlined by the organization or regulatory body.

18. Epicondylitis ("Tennis Elbow")

1. Caused by jerky, throwing motions
2. Tendons on outside elbow injured or strained

19. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA)

The Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), enacted in 1975, is the principal federal law in the United States regulating the transportation of hazardous materials.

20. Nomenclature

Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terminology used in scientific and any other disciplines.

21. The Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS)

The Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS) is a numerical hazard rating that incorporates the use of labels with color developed by the American Coatings Association as a compliance aid for the OSHA Hazard Communication (HazCom) Standard.

21. state of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

22. Neutron degeneracy

Neutron degeneracy is analogous to electron degeneracy and is demonstrated in neutron stars, which are partially supported by the pressure from a degenerate neutron gas

23. Matter waves

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality. All matter exhibits wave-like behavior. For example, a beam of electrons can be diffracted just like a beam of light or a water wave. In most cases, however, the wavelength is too small to have a practical impact on day-to-day activities.

25. Tendinitis

Inflammation of tendons associated with repeated moving, bending

26. Trigger Finger

Finger movement not smooth - snaps or jerks

27. White Finger

- Insufficient blood supply causes fingers to become pale
- Arteries closed due to vasospasms triggered by VIBRATIONS
- Working in the cold, working with jackhammers, etc

28. Ergonomics Program Steps/Factors

- All personnel represented on ergo team (labour, management, engineering, safety)
- Training
- Identifying existing or potential problems
- Evaluate risk factors
- Design and implement
- Monitor Effectiveness of corrections

29. Workstation Design (10 Factors)

1. Ensure PROPER MATCH between facility and operator
2. Task design and work DESIGN INTERRELATED
- Forces kept to less than 30% of maximal forces
- Up to 50% acceptable for short durations
- Static forces kept to less than 15% of maximal forces
3. Use best MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
4. Foot controls OK for seated workers NOT for standing workers
5. Maintain proper SITTING HEIGHT
6. Permit CHANGE of POSTURE
7. Accommodate LARGE OPERATORS in design
8. BENCH Height
- Sitting 50cm - 70cm
- Standing 89cm
9. Controls and computer screens placed in VISUAL FIELD
10 INSTRUCT and TRAIN operators to use good working posture

30. Standing Work Heights (Delicate, Light, Heavy)

Delicate work - 2"-4" above elbow
- Light work - 2"-4" below elbow
- Heavy work - 6"-16" below elbow

31. REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) (Bag it, tag it) Steps

- Looks at entire body as you do a task - Steps
1. Observe the task
2. Fill out a checklist
3. Compute Scores
4. Compare
5. Interview and Observation
- Based on
- The most difficult postures and work tasks
- Posture sustained for longest period of time
- Posture where highest workloads occur

32. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment)

Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a survey method developed for use in ergonomic investigations of workplaces where work related upper limb disorders are reported. RULA is a screening tool that assesses biomechanical and postural loading on the whole body with particular attention to the neck, trunk and upper limbs. Very similar to REBA - see REBA for steps

33. REBA/RULA Pros/Cons

Pros:
- User Friendly
- Advanced Degrees/special equipment not required
Cons:
- Does not consider duration of task - Only allows for looking at one point in time or worst-case scenario
- Must use representative postures

34. System Safety

- Systematic approach to detect deficiencies in system components
- Incorporate safety devices
- Provide warnings
- Develop procedures/training

35. Total Recordable Injury Frequency (TRIF)

Total Recordable Injury Frequency (TRIF) is the rate at which workers are injured for every 100 employees’ worth of full-time hours.

36. BCSP Code of Ethics

The Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP) Code of Ethics establishes the ethics and professional standards that must be observed by anyone holding a certification granted by the BCSP The specifics can be found on their website BCSP.org.

37. Days Away Restricted or Transferred (DART)

Days Away Restricted or Transferred (DART) refers to the number of cases where workers have not been able to carry out their job tasks due to a workplace injury.

38. Root Cause Analysis

Root Cause Analysis is when the reason for a particular issue or incident is evaluated to establish its source.

39. System Safety Analysis (What-if, HAZOP)

- What-if Analysis: INFORMAL investigation introducing and evaluating hypotheticals
- Haz-OP: FORMAL study examining potential deviations from design conditions that could create problems/hazards
- Both frequently a TEAM EFFORT

40. FMEA (analysis)

- Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
- Looks to potential equipment failures - traced to predict effects
- Analysis leads to critical items list: What are the worst hazards? How to prioritize?

41. STEP analysis

- Simultaneous Timed Events Plotting
- Looks at events from time or sequence perspective

42. MORT

- Management Oversight and Risk Tree
- Identifies risks and refers to proper management

43. the unit of measurement of momentum

In the International System of Units (SI), the unit of measurement of momentum is the kilogram metre per second (kg⋅m/s), which is equivalent to the newton-second.

44. quantum field theory

In quantum field theory, correlation functions, often referred to as correlators or Green's functions, are vacuum expectation values of time-ordered products of field operators.

45. An electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field produced by moving electric charges.[1] It is the field described by classical electrodynamics (a classical field theory) and is the classical counterpart to the quantized electromagnetic field tensor in quantum electrodynamics (a quantum field theory).

46. quantum vacuum state

In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.

47. Energy Trace and Barrier Analysis (Part of MORT)

- Incident: unwanted energy flow from inadequate barriers resulting WITHOUT adverse consequences
- Accident: Same but WITH adverse consequences

48. Fault Tree Analysis - Event Types

- Four Event Types:
- Fault Event: Rectangle
- Basic Event: Circle
- Undeveloped Event: Diamond
- Normal Event: House Shape - probability close to 1

49. Fault Tree Analysis - "And" gates; "Or" gates

- "And Gate": A and B both need to occur to lead to C
- A x B = C
- Bullet shape
- "Or Gate": A or B needs to occur to lead to C
- A+B=C
- Looks kind of like an oar (Curved semicircle)
See p. 164-165 for examples

50. Aims of Industrial Hygiene

1. Anticipate
2. Recognize
3. Evaluate
4. Control
Health Hazards

51. TLVs (health hazards)

- Threshold Limit Values
- GUIDELINES in controlling hazards NOT in regulations
- Level of exposure a typical worker can experience without adverse health effects
- Based on industrial experience and lab tests

52. TLV-TWA

- Time Weighted Average
- 8-hour workday
- 40-hour work week
- Nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed DAY AFTER DAY without adverse effect

53. TLV-STEL

- Short Term Exposure Limit
- Workers can be exposed continuously for a SHORT PERIOD OF TIME without: Irritation
Chronic/irreversible tissue damage Narcosis (stupor, drowsiness, unconsciousness)
- No longer than 15 MINUTES
- No more than 4 TIMES A DAY
- 60 MINUTES BETWEEN exposures

54. Hazard Observations

Hazard Observations are the hazards or risks discovered or identified related to a job task or on-site.

55. Residual Risk Score

Residual Risk Score is the level of risk which remains after certain controls have been taken to mitigate said risk.

56. Non-Conformances on Site/Operations

Non-Conformances on Site/Operations are when site operations do not meet the specific target or standards set by the organization or regulatory body.

57. OSHA PELs

- Permissible Exposure Limit
- REGULATION
- Based on TLVs from 1968

58. An oxidizing agent

An oxidizing agent (also known as an oxidant, oxidizer, electron recipient, or electron acceptor) is a substance in a redox chemical reaction that gains or "accepts"/"receives" an electron from a reducing agent (called the reductant, reducer, or electron donor).

59. Division 5.1: Oxidizers

An oxidizer is a material that may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials.

60. Class A fires

Class A fires consist of ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, fabric, and most kinds of trash. They may be extinguished by water, wet chemical suppression, or dry chemical powder

61. Class D fires

Class D fires involve combustible metals - especially alkali metals like lithium and potassium, alkaline earth metals such as magnesium, and group 4 elements such as titanium and zirconium.

62. Ceiling Limit

Concentration should not be exceeded at ANY time

63. Particulate Matter Size Categories

- Inhalable - less than or equal to 100 μm (micro meters)
- Thoracic - less than or equal to 10 micrometers
- These get a little farther into the throat but not far enough to cause any damage
- Respirable - less than or equal to 4 micrometers
- These get far down enough to cause damage

64. Pump and Filter Sampling Method

- Measures for total dust
- Pulls air through filter
- Filter sent to lab to be weighed - Gravimetric method

65. Cyclone Sampling Method

- Used for RESPIRABLE dust
- Uses pump and filter as well
- Cyclone system separates smaller particulate from larger
- Placed in the breathing zone - around face

66. Direct Reading Dust Monitor (Miniram)

- Scatters light in a room and uses to take a reading for dust

67. Photoionization Detector (PID)

- Used to test for amount and class of chemicals in the air
- Immediate qualitative results
- IF you know the individual contaminants you can get quantitative results

68. PID Disadvantages

Poor selectivity
- Adversely affected by: humidity, particulates, hot/corrosive atmospheres
- Must be recalibrated when lamp ages/is contaminated

69. Gas Detector Tubes

- Specific volume of air drawn through tube with hand pump
- In tube you have chemicals that will react with the things you are looking for
- Color changes proportional to concentration

70. Combustible Gas Detector

- Measures combustible gases as a percentage of the lower flammable limit or lower explosive limit (LEL)
- Called a Wheatstone Bridge This is what gas is burned across Part of the combustible gas detector
- Alarm sounds at 10% LEL

71. Absorbents (impinger)

LIQUID media absorbs air with contaminant
- Sample drawn through liquid and gas absorbed in liquid
- Liquid analyzed in lab

72. Adsorbents

- SOLID material that retains chemical molecules
Activated carbon most common
- Tube sent to lab for analysis
- Adsorbents can be used:
Actively - air being pulled through media.
Passively - media being worn etc.
- Good for: hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohol, glycol ethers

73. A tort

A tort is a civil wrong-doing that offers grounds for legal action. It covers wrong-doing that results in harm and that presents the basis for a lawsuit in which injunctions and / or damages may be claimed from the entity responsible for the tortuous conduct.

74. Threshold Limit Values (TLVs)

Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) are exposure-limit recommendations developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

75. permissible exposure limits (PELs)

OSHA’s legally enforceable exposure limits—called permissible exposure limits (PELs)

76. Active Sampling

Two sections: collection adsorbent and breakthrough adsorbent

77. Breakthrough

- Essentially contamination of sample
- High temperature
- Migration of Chemicals

78. Diffusion Sampling

- Passive sampling
- Sample rate determined by Fick's Law - this has been on test
- Uses same media as solid sorbent tubes
- Less obtrusive to the wearer

79. Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration, or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by radiation.

80. Half-life

Half-life (symbol t½) is the time required for a quantity (of substance) to reduce to half of its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo radioactive decay or how long stable atoms survive. The term is also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential (or, rarely, non-exponential) decay.

81. The doubling time

The doubling time is the time it takes for a population to double in size/value. It is applied to population growth, inflation, resource extraction, consumption of goods, compound interest, the volume of malignant tumours, and many other things that tend to grow over time. When the relative growth rate (not the absolute growth rate) is constant, the quantity undergoes exponential growth and has a constant doubling time or period, which can be calculated directly from the growth rate.

82. Biological half-life

Biological half-life (also known as elimination half-life, pharmacologic half-life) is the time taken for concentration of a biological substance (such as a medication) to decrease from its maximum concentration

83. Biological Air Sampling

- Uses pump - air drawn through media
- Collects colony forming units
- Count colonies that grow

84. Epicondylitis ("Tennis Elbow")

1. Caused by jerky, throwing motions
2. Tendons on outside elbow injured or strained

85. Nomenclature

Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terminology used in scientific and any other disciplines.

86. state of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

87. Neutron degeneracy

Neutron degeneracy is analogous to electron degeneracy and is demonstrated in neutron stars, which are partially supported by the pressure from a degenerate neutron gas

88. Matter waves

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality. All matter exhibits wave-like behavior. For example, a beam of electrons can be diffracted just like a beam of light or a water wave. In most cases, however, the wavelength is too small to have a practical impact on day-to-day activities.

89. Tendinitis

Inflammation of tendons associated with repeated moving, bending

90. Trigger Finger

Finger movement not smooth - snaps or jerks

91. White Finger

- Insufficient blood supply causes fingers to become pale
- Arteries closed due to vasospasms triggered by VIBRATIONS
- Working in the cold, working with jackhammers, etc

92. Ergonomics Program Steps/Factors

- All personnel represented on ergo team (labour, management, engineering, safety)
- Training
- Identifying existing or potential problems
- Evaluate risk factors
- Design and implement
- Monitor Effectiveness of corrections

93. Workstation Design (10 Factors)

1. Ensure PROPER MATCH between facility and operator
2. Task design and work DESIGN INTERRELATED
- Forces kept to less than 30% of maximal forces
- Up to 50% acceptable for short durations
- Static forces kept to less than 15% of maximal forces
3. Use best MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
4. Foot controls OK for seated workers NOT for standing workers
5. Maintain proper SITTING HEIGHT
6. Permit CHANGE of POSTURE
7. Accommodate LARGE OPERATORS in design
8. BENCH Height
- Sitting 50cm - 70cm
- Standing 89cm
9. Controls and computer screens placed in VISUAL FIELD
10 INSTRUCT and TRAIN operators to use good working posture

94. Standing Work Heights (Delicate, Light, Heavy)

Delicate work - 2"-4" above elbow
- Light work - 2"-4" below elbow
- Heavy work - 6"-16" below elbow

95. REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) (Bag it, tag it) Steps

- Looks at entire body as you do a task - Steps
1. Observe the task
2. Fill out a checklist
3. Compute Scores
4. Compare
5. Interview and Observation
- Based on
- The most difficult postures and work tasks
- Posture sustained for longest period of time
- Posture where highest workloads occur

96. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment)

Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a survey method developed for use in ergonomic investigations of workplaces where work related upper limb disorders are reported. RULA is a screening tool that assesses biomechanical and postural loading on the whole body with particular attention to the neck, trunk and upper limbs. Very similar to REBA - see REBA for steps

97. Total recordable injuries

Total recordable injuries (TRI) is a measure that encompasses all fatalities, lost time injuries, cases restricted for work, cases of substitute work due to injury, and medical treatment cases by medical professionals.

98. Restricted Work Case (RWC)

Restricted Work Case (RWC) - Workplace injury resulting in an employee being given alternative job assignment

99. Medical Treatment Case (MTC)

Medical Treatment Case (MTC) - Workplace injury requiring treatment by a medical professional

100. REBA/RULA Pros/Cons

Pros:
- User Friendly
- Advanced Degrees/special equipment not required
Cons:
- Does not consider duration of task - Only allows for looking at one point in time or worst-case scenario
- Must use representative postures

101. System Safety

- Systematic approach to detect deficiencies in system components
- Incorporate safety devices
- Provide warnings
- Develop procedures/training

102. System Safety Analysis (What-if, HAZOP)

- What-if Analysis: INFORMAL investigation introducing and evaluating hypotheticals
- Haz-OP: FORMAL study examining potential deviations from design conditions that could create problems/hazards
- Both frequently a TEAM EFFORT

103. FMEA (analysis)

- Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
- Looks to potential equipment failures - traced to predict effects
- Analysis leads to critical items list: What are the worst hazards? How to prioritize?

104. Flammable liquid - Category I

Category I flammable liquids are those with boiling points ≤ 95 °F (35 °C) and flash points < 73 °F (23 °C)

105. Flammable liquid - Category IV

Category IV flammable liquids are those with flash points > 140 °F and ≤ 199.4 °F

106. STEP analysis

- Simultaneous Timed Events Plotting
- Looks at events from time or sequence perspective

107. MORT

- Management Oversight and Risk Tree
- Identifies risks and refers to proper management

108. the unit of measurement of momentum

In the International System of Units (SI), the unit of measurement of momentum is the kilogram metre per second (kg⋅m/s), which is equivalent to the newton-second.

109. quantum field theory

In quantum field theory, correlation functions, often referred to as correlators or Green's functions, are vacuum expectation values of time-ordered products of field operators.

110. An electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field produced by moving electric charges.[1] It is the field described by classical electrodynamics (a classical field theory) and is the classical counterpart to the quantized electromagnetic field tensor in quantum electrodynamics (a quantum field theory).

111. quantum vacuum state

In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.

112. Energy Trace and Barrier Analysis (Part of MORT)

- Incident: unwanted energy flow from inadequate barriers resulting WITHOUT adverse consequences
- Accident: Same but WITH adverse consequences

113. Fault Tree Analysis - Event Types

- Four Event Types:
- Fault Event: Rectangle
- Basic Event: Circle
- Undeveloped Event: Diamond
- Normal Event: House Shape - probability close to 1

114. isobaric process

In thermodynamics, an isobaric process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the pressure of the system stays constant

115. The First Law of thermodynamics

The First Law of thermodynamics is a formulation of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic processes.

116. heat

In thermodynamics, an isobaric process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the pressure of the system stays constant

117. The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT)

The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is a type of apparent temperature used to estimate the effect of temperature, humidity, wind speed (wind chill), and visible and infrared radiation (usually sunlight) on humans. It is used by industrial hygienists, athletes, sporting events and the military to determine appropriate exposure levels to high temperatures.

118. Wind chill or windchill

Wind chill or windchill (popularly wind chill factor) is the lowering of body temperature due to the passing flow of lower-temperature air. Wind chill numbers are always lower than the air temperature for values where the formula is valid. When the apparent temperature is higher than the air temperature, the heat index is used instead.

119. The heat index (HI)

The heat index (HI) is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity, in shaded areas, to posit a human-perceived equivalent temperature, as how hot it would feel if the humidity were some other value in the shade.

120. CE marking

Marking (PDF) made by manufacturers, indicating that a product conforms with the requirements set out in European Community harmonisation legislation. It must be visible, legible and indelible.

121. Explosion protection mark

The 'Ex' mark within a hexagon symbol required by Essential Health and Safety Requirement 1.0.5 of the legislation concerned with ATEX compliant products.

122. REACH

A regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals. More information on REACH is available.

123. Technical specification

A document that prescribes the technical requirements to be fulfilled by a product, process or service.

124. ATEX

The name commonly given to the framework for controlling explosive atmospheres, and the standards of equipment and protective systems used in them. It is based on the requirements of the Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (for worker protection) and the Equipment and Protective Systems Intended for Use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2016 (for product safety).

125. Apparent temperature

Apparent temperature, also known as feels like, is the temperature equivalent perceived by humans, caused by the combined effects of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The measure is most commonly applied to the perceived outdoor temperature.

126. The humidex

The humidex (short for humidity index) is an index number used by Canadian meteorologists to describe how hot the weather feels to the average person, by combining the effect of heat and humidity. The term humidex was coined in 1965.

127. Risk transfer

With reinsurance, the insurer can issue policies with higher limits than would otherwise be allowed, thus being able to take on more risk because some of that risk is now transferred to the re-insurer

128. Risk management

Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events

129. root cause analysis (RCA)

In science and engineering, root cause analysis (RCA) is a method of problem solving used for identifying the root causes of faults or problems

130. causal graphs

In statistics, econometrics, epidemiology, genetics and related disciplines, causal graphs (also known as path diagrams, causal Bayesian networks or DAGs) are probabilistic graphical models used to encode assumptions about the data-generating process.

131. Structural equation modeling (SEM)

Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a label for a diverse set of methods used by scientists in both experimental and observational research across the sciences

132. Epicondylitis ("Tennis Elbow")

1. Caused by jerky, throwing motions
2. Tendons on outside elbow injured or strained

133. Nomenclature

Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terminology used in scientific and any other disciplines.

134. state of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

135. Neutron degeneracy

Neutron degeneracy is analogous to electron degeneracy and is demonstrated in neutron stars, which are partially supported by the pressure from a degenerate neutron gas

136. Matter waves

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality. All matter exhibits wave-like behavior. For example, a beam of electrons can be diffracted just like a beam of light or a water wave. In most cases, however, the wavelength is too small to have a practical impact on day-to-day activities.

137. Tendinitis

Inflammation of tendons associated with repeated moving, bending

138. Trigger Finger

Finger movement not smooth - snaps or jerks

139. White Finger

- Insufficient blood supply causes fingers to become pale
- Arteries closed due to vasospasms triggered by VIBRATIONS
- Working in the cold, working with jackhammers, etc

140. Ergonomics Program Steps/Factors

- All personnel represented on ergo team (labour, management, engineering, safety)
- Training
- Identifying existing or potential problems
- Evaluate risk factors
- Design and implement
- Monitor Effectiveness of corrections

141. Workstation Design (10 Factors)

1. Ensure PROPER MATCH between facility and operator
2. Task design and work DESIGN INTERRELATED
- Forces kept to less than 30% of maximal forces
- Up to 50% acceptable for short durations
- Static forces kept to less than 15% of maximal forces
3. Use best MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
4. Foot controls OK for seated workers NOT for standing workers
5. Maintain proper SITTING HEIGHT
6. Permit CHANGE of POSTURE
7. Accommodate LARGE OPERATORS in design
8. BENCH Height
- Sitting 50cm - 70cm
- Standing 89cm
9. Controls and computer screens placed in VISUAL FIELD
10 INSTRUCT and TRAIN operators to use good working posture

142. Standing Work Heights (Delicate, Light, Heavy)

Delicate work - 2"-4" above elbow
- Light work - 2"-4" below elbow
- Heavy work - 6"-16" below elbow

143. REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) (Bag it, tag it) Steps

- Looks at entire body as you do a task - Steps
1. Observe the task
2. Fill out a checklist
3. Compute Scores
4. Compare
5. Interview and Observation
- Based on
- The most difficult postures and work tasks
- Posture sustained for longest period of time
- Posture where highest workloads occur

144. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment)

Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a survey method developed for use in ergonomic investigations of workplaces where work related upper limb disorders are reported. RULA is a screening tool that assesses biomechanical and postural loading on the whole body with particular attention to the neck, trunk and upper limbs. Very similar to REBA - see REBA for steps

145. REBA/RULA Pros/Cons

Pros:
- User Friendly
- Advanced Degrees/special equipment not required
Cons:
- Does not consider duration of task - Only allows for looking at one point in time or worst-case scenario
- Must use representative postures

146. System Safety

- Systematic approach to detect deficiencies in system components
- Incorporate safety devices
- Provide warnings
- Develop procedures/training

147. System Safety Analysis (What-if, HAZOP)

- What-if Analysis: INFORMAL investigation introducing and evaluating hypotheticals
- Haz-OP: FORMAL study examining potential deviations from design conditions that could create problems/hazards
- Both frequently a TEAM EFFORT

148. Common forms of energy

Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object (for instance due to its position in a field), the elastic energy stored in a solid object, chemical energy associated with chemical reactions, the radiant energy carried by electromagnetic radiation, and the internal energy contained within a thermodynamic system.

149. Mass

Mass is an intrinsic property of a body. It was traditionally believed to be related to the quantity of matter in a physical body, until the discovery of the atom and particle physics.

150. Velocity

Velocity is the directional speed of an object in motion as an indication of its rate of change in position as observed from a particular frame of reference and as measured by a particular standard of time (e.g. 60 km/h northbound).

151. FMEA (analysis)

- Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
- Looks to potential equipment failures - traced to predict effects
- Analysis leads to critical items list: What are the worst hazards? How to prioritize?

152. STEP analysis

- Simultaneous Timed Events Plotting
- Looks at events from time or sequence perspective

153. MORT

- Management Oversight and Risk Tree
- Identifies risks and refers to proper management

154. the unit of measurement of momentum

In the International System of Units (SI), the unit of measurement of momentum is the kilogram metre per second (kg⋅m/s), which is equivalent to the newton-second.

155. quantum field theory

In quantum field theory, correlation functions, often referred to as correlators or Green's functions, are vacuum expectation values of time-ordered products of field operators.

156. An electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field produced by moving electric charges.[1] It is the field described by classical electrodynamics (a classical field theory) and is the classical counterpart to the quantized electromagnetic field tensor in quantum electrodynamics (a quantum field theory).

157. quantum vacuum state

In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.

158. Human factors and ergonomics

Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as human factors engineering or hfe) is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the engineering and design of products, processes, and systems.

159. unit load

The term unit load refers to the size of an assemblage into which a number of individual items are combined for ease of storage and handling

160. Human error

Human error is an action that has been done but that was "not intended by the actor; not desired by a set of rules or an external observer; or that led the task or system outside its acceptable limits

161. slip

In psychoanalysis, a Freudian slip, also called parapraxis, is an error in speech, memory, or physical action that occurs due to the interference of an unconscious subdued wish or internal train of thought. Classical examples involve slips of the tongue, but psychoanalytic theory also embraces misreadings, mishearings, mistypings, temporary forgettings, and the mislaying and losing of objects.

162. Energy Trace and Barrier Analysis (Part of MORT)

- Incident: unwanted energy flow from inadequate barriers resulting WITHOUT adverse consequences
- Accident: Same but WITH adverse consequences

163. Fault Tree Analysis - Event Types

- Four Event Types:
- Fault Event: Rectangle
- Basic Event: Circle
- Undeveloped Event: Diamond
- Normal Event: House Shape - probability close to 1

164. Fault Tree Analysis - "And" gates; "Or" gates

- "And Gate": A and B both need to occur to lead to C
- A x B = C
- Bullet shape
- "Or Gate": A or B needs to occur to lead to C
- A+B=C
- Looks kind of like an oar (Curved semicircle)
See p. 164-165 for examples

165. Aims of Industrial Hygiene

1. Anticipate
2. Recognize
3. Evaluate
4. Control
Health Hazards

166. TLVs (health hazards)

- Threshold Limit Values
- GUIDELINES in controlling hazards NOT in regulations
- Level of exposure a typical worker can experience without adverse health effects
- Based on industrial experience and lab tests

167. TLV-TWA

- Time Weighted Average
- 8-hour workday
- 40-hour work week
- Nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed DAY AFTER DAY without adverse effect

168. TLV-STEL

- Short Term Exposure Limit
- Workers can be exposed continuously for a SHORT PERIOD OF TIME without: Irritation
Chronic/irreversible tissue damage Narcosis (stupor, drowsiness, unconsciousness)
- No longer than 15 MINUTES
- No more than 4 TIMES A DAY
- 60 MINUTES BETWEEN exposures

169. OSHA PELs

- Permissible Exposure Limit
- REGULATION
- Based on TLVs from 1968

170. Ceiling Limit

Concentration should not be exceeded at ANY time

171. Particulate Matter Size Categories

- Inhalable - less than or equal to 100 μm (micro meters)
- Thoracic - less than or equal to 10 micrometers
- These get a little farther into the throat but not far enough to cause any damage
- Respirable - less than or equal to 4 micrometers
- These get far down enough to cause damage

172. Pump and Filter Sampling Method

- Measures for total dust
- Pulls air through filter
- Filter sent to lab to be weighed - Gravimetric method

173. Cyclone Sampling Method

- Used for RESPIRABLE dust
- Uses pump and filter as well
- Cyclone system separates smaller particulate from larger
- Placed in the breathing zone - around face

174. Direct Reading Dust Monitor (Miniram)

- Scatters light in a room and uses to take a reading for dust

175. Photoionization Detector (PID)

- Used to test for amount and class of chemicals in the air
- Immediate qualitative results
- IF you know the individual contaminants you can get quantitative results

176. PID Disadvantages

Poor selectivity
- Adversely affected by: humidity, particulates, hot/corrosive atmospheres
- Must be recalibrated when lamp ages/is contaminated

177. Gas Detector Tubes

- Specific volume of air drawn through tube with hand pump
- In tube you have chemicals that will react with the things you are looking for
- Color changes proportional to concentration

178. Combustible Gas Detector

- Measures combustible gases as a percentage of the lower flammable limit or lower explosive limit (LEL)
- Called a Wheatstone Bridge This is what gas is burned across Part of the combustible gas detector
- Alarm sounds at 10% LEL

179. ISO stands for

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

180. ISO 45001

ISO 45001 is an ISO standard for management systems of occupational health and safety (OHS), published in March 2018.

181. OHSAS 18001

OHSAS 18001, Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series, was an international standard for occupational health and safety management systems that was subsequently adopted as a British Standard. Compliance with it enabled organizations to demonstrate that they had a system in place for occupational health and safety

182. The goal of ISO 45001

The goal of ISO 45001 is the reduction of occupational injuries and diseases, including promoting and protecting physical and mental health.

183. Absorbents (impinger)

LIQUID media absorbs air with contaminant
- Sample drawn through liquid and gas absorbed in liquid
- Liquid analyzed in lab

184. Adsorbents

- SOLID material that retains chemical molecules
Activated carbon most common
- Tube sent to lab for analysis
- Adsorbents can be used:
Actively - air being pulled through media.
Passively - media being worn etc.
- Good for: hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohol, glycol ethers

185. Active Sampling

Two sections: collection adsorbent and breakthrough adsorbent

186. Breakthrough

- Essentially contamination of sample
- High temperature
- Migration of Chemicals

187. Diffusion Sampling

- Passive sampling
- Sample rate determined by Fick's Law - this has been on test
- Uses same media as solid sorbent tubes
- Less obtrusive to the wearer

188. Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration, or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by radiation.

189. Half-life

Half-life (symbol t½) is the time required for a quantity (of substance) to reduce to half of its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo radioactive decay or how long stable atoms survive. The term is also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential (or, rarely, non-exponential) decay.

190. The doubling time

The doubling time is the time it takes for a population to double in size/value. It is applied to population growth, inflation, resource extraction, consumption of goods, compound interest, the volume of malignant tumours, and many other things that tend to grow over time. When the relative growth rate (not the absolute growth rate) is constant, the quantity undergoes exponential growth and has a constant doubling time or period, which can be calculated directly from the growth rate.

191. Biological half-life

Biological half-life (also known as elimination half-life, pharmacologic half-life) is the time taken for concentration of a biological substance (such as a medication) to decrease from its maximum concentration

192. Biological Air Sampling

- Uses pump - air drawn through media
- Collects colony forming units
- Count colonies that grow

193. Trench collapses, or cave-ins

Trench collapses, or cave-ins, pose the greatest risk to workers' lives. To prevent cave-ins:
SLOPE or bench trench walls
SHORE trench walls with supports, or
SHIELD trench walls with trench boxes

194. OSHA trenching and excavation Standards

29 CFR 1926.650, 29 CFR 1926.651, and 29 CFR 1926.652 are applicable OSHA standards.

195. Shoring

Shoring is the process of temporarily supporting a building, vessel, structure, or trench with shores (props) when in danger of collapse or during repairs or alterations. Shoring comes from shore, a timber or metal prop.

196. A box crib or cribbing

A box crib or cribbing is a temporary wooden structure used to support heavy objects during construction, relocation, vehicle extrication and urban search and rescue.

197. Calibration of Air Sampling Instruments

- All air sampling instruments must be calibrated
- Pumps must calibrate airflow BEFORE and AFTER each sampling period
- Electrochemical sensors must be calibrated on a routine basis

198. Vector

Organism is a vector if it spreads disease

199. Fungi

- Everywhere in human environments
- MOISTURE and growth MEDIA lead to growth Term

200. Biological heath hazards

Biological health hazards include bacteria, viruses, parasites and moulds or fungi. They can pose a threat to human health when they are inhaled, eaten or come in contact with skin. They can cause illness such as food poisoning, tetanus, respiratory infections or parasite infection.

201. mVOCs

- Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds
- Spores offgassing when reproducing produces bad smell

202. Legionella

Legionella is a genus of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis (all illnesses caused by Legionella) including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires' disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever.
- Bacteria
- Legionary disease
- In air conditioners, cooling units, cooling towers
- Water Sampling

203. E Col

Escherichia coli , also known as E. coli, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. - Bacteria
- Water Sampling to Detect

204. Drug Resistant Pathogens

- MRSA
- Staph infection
- Tuberculosis (skin and airways)
- Droplet spread respiratory infection
- Influenza
- H1N1: "bird flu"
- H1N5: "swine flu"

205. Parasites

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host and gets its food from or at the expense of its host.
- Bedbugs
- Giardia
- Tapeworms
- Malaria

206. ALARP or ALARA

ALARP ("as low as reasonably practicable"), or ALARA ("as low as reasonably achievable"), is a principle in the regulation and management of safety-critical and safety-involved systems

207. Whole body vibration

Whole body vibration is a generic term used when vibrations (mechanical oscillations) of any frequency are transferred to the human body. Humans are exposed to vibration through a contact surface that is in a mechanical vibrating state. Humans are generally exposed to many different forms of vibration in their daily lives.

208. Vibration white finger (VWF)

Vibration white finger (VWF), also known as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or dead finger,[1] is a secondary form of Raynaud's syndrome, an industrial injury triggered by continuous use of vibrating hand-held machinery.

209. NIOSH Stands for

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

210. Raynaud syndrome

Raynaud syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, named after the physician Auguste Gabriel Maurice Raynaud, who first described it in his doctoral thesis in 1862, is a medical condition in which the spasm of small arteries causes episodes of reduced blood flow to end arterioles

211. HAZWOPER

Stands for Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. HAZWOPER is a set of guidelines written by OSHA to regulate hazardous waste operations and to help protect employees from hazards. Any employee that is exposed or could be exposed to hazardous materials is covered under the HAZWOPER standard.

212. OSHA Act

A US labor law that governs occupational health and safety standards in both the public and private sectors. This law was passed in 1970, after growing awareness of workplace safety issues reached its peak.

213. Permissible Exposure Limits

The legal limit for a worker's exposure to a chemical, safety or physical hazards. Each hazard has its own set of permissible exposure limits.

214. Superfund

Superfund is a United States federal environmental remediation program established by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA)

215. the National Priorities List (NPL)

the National Priorities List (NPL). Sites on the NPL are considered the most highly contaminated and undergo longer-term remedial investigation and remedial action (clean-ups).

216. Pictograms

Used in hazard communication, pictograms are symbols used to represent specific hazards. Pictograms are drawn as symbols on white backgrounds with red borders.

217. The autoignition temperature

The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature in which it spontaneously ignites in a normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark

218. Spontaneous combustion

Spontaneous combustion or spontaneous ignition is a type of combustion which occurs by self-heating (increase in temperature due to exothermic internal reactions), followed by thermal runaway (self-heating which rapidly accelerates to high temperatures) and finally, autoignition

219. Thermal runaway

Thermal runaway describes a process that is accelerated by increased temperature, in turn releasing energy that further increases temperature.

220. exothermic reaction

After an exothermic reaction, more energy has been released to the surroundings than was absorbed to initiate and maintain the reaction.

221. A physical quantity

A physical quantity is a physical property of a material or system that can be quantified by measurement. A physical quantity can be expressed as a value, which is the algebraic multiplication of a ' Numerical value ' and a ' Unit '.

222. potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy held by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors

223. A unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity

224. Metrology

Metrology is the scientific study of measurement. It establishes a common understanding of units, crucial in linking human activities

225. Bloodborne pathogens

Bloodborne pathogens are infectious microorganisms in human blood that can cause disease in humans. Examples of bloodborne pathogens include hepatitis and HIV.

226. Confined Spaces

Areas that have limited entry and exit points and are large enough for a person to enter and work but are not safe to work in for a long period of time. Confined spaces are considered dangerous and contain a variety of hazards.

227. Emergency Action Plans

OSHA standards require that an emergency action plan (EAP) be put in place for certain worksites. An EAP should be used as an instruction guide for employees to follow during workplace emergencies.

228. First Aid/CPR

Types of help administered to a sick or injured person until full medical treatment is available. While First Aid can be used to heal a wide variety of injuries, CPR is used when a person is struggling to breathe, or their heart is not beating.

229. GHS Hazard Communication Standards

Provides easy-to-understand information on the safe handling of hazardous equipment. The Hazard Communication Standard is comprised of four main parts: Hazard Classification, Labels, Safety Data Sheets, and Training.

230. BCSP Code of Ethics - Hold

Hold the safety and health of individuals and the protection of the environment and property as a priority. Notify all affected parties of unacceptable risk.

231. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle — Three great ways YOU can eliminate waste and protect your environment!

232. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an independent executive agency of the United States federal government tasked with environmental protection matters

233. HMIS - Blue (Health) - 4

Life-threatening, major or permanent damage may result from single or repeated overexposures

234. Flammable liquid

1] Prior to bringing regulations in line with the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) in 2012, OSHA considered flammable liquids to be those with a flash point below 100 °F (37.8 °C).

235. Fire prevention

Fire prevention is a function of many fire departments. The goal of fire prevention is to educate the public on the precautions which should be taken to prevent potentially harmful fires and how to survive these fires if they do occur.

236. Stop, drop and roll

Stop, drop and roll is a simple fire safety technique taught to children, emergency service personnel and industrial workers as a component of health and safety training

237. The dead man zone

The dead man zone is the area directly around a bushfire that is likely to burn within five minutes given the current wind conditions or an anticipated change in wind direction.

238. two-in, two-out

In firefighting, the policy of two-in, two-out refers to United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) policy 29 CFR 1910.134(g)(4)(i).

239. The fire triangle

The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple model for understanding the necessary ingredients for most fires

240. Class F (EU/AU)/Class K (US)

Fires involving cooking oils and fats are classified as "Class F" under the European and Australian systems, and "Class K" under the American system.

241. A fire extinguisher

A fire extinguisher is a handheld active fire protection device usually filled with a dry or wet chemical used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergencies.

242. Blended learning

Blended learning is a style of education in which learners use a combination of traditional face-to-face interaction in the classroom and online and/or electronic media.

243. Conflict management

Conflict management is the ability to manage conflict in such a way that the positive outcomes are maximized while minimizing the negative aspects of the conflict.

244. Cultural intelligence

Cultural intelligence, or CQ, is the ability not only to understand that people from cultures different from yours have different beliefs, values, and ways of feeling and behaving but also to empathize with people from different cultures.

245. Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the ability that a person has to understand and manage their own as well as other people’s emotions. Emotional intelligence is important in developing other interpersonal skills, such as conflict management. Fortunately, emotional intelligence can be learnt and developed.

246. anthropology

This a form of anthropology, which researches a culture via observational methods. The intention with ethnography is to understand the cultural representations and ways in which that culture live and the meaning system and social structures of that given culture or community.

247. Longitudinal Study

A study that takes place over a length of time (can be years or even decades) and which measures the same research subjects over this period.

248. Metacognition

Metacognition is the ability to ‘think about thinking’. Metacognitive skills that are useful for learning include the ability to self-assess, problem-solving, and evaluating how to approach a difficult task.

249. Netnography

Netnography is a word coined by Prof Kozinets which means online ethnography.

250. Pedagogy

This term refers to the different teaching methods and practices. Pedagogy is especially useful for those interested in how people learn in different ways such as through touch, sound, memorization and how we learn in different ways.