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CRST 250 Flashcards

1. Acceptability/Tolerability of Risk

There are criteria by which a society decides which risks it is prepared to expect workers and members of the public to live with, and those it is not. Risks may be classified into three categories: Acceptable - No further action required; risks insignificant or trivial and adequately controlled. They are of inherently low risk or can be readily controlled to a low level. Unacceptable - Certain risks cannot be justified (except in extraordinary circumstances) despite any benefits they might bring. Tolerable - Risks that fall between the acceptable and unacceptable.

2. Abuse, aggression, or violence incident

Abuse, aggression, or violence is defined as ‘an incident in which employees feel they have been verbally abused, threatened or attacked in circumstances relating to their duties either in or out of work’. Employees should report incidents involving race, gender or gender identity, religion or belief, disability, sexuality, and age in line with the requirements of the Council’s Dignity at Work Policy.

3. People at the risk of violence

Those at increased risk are likely to be employees who:
• handle or collect money or valuables
• give advice or training
• work alone or away from a workplace
• carry out enforcement duties or inspections
• have contact with service users.

4. Aggression

Aggression has potentially damaging effect on an employee’s well-being of all categories of violence - actual physical attack, the threat of violence, and verbal abuse.

5. Bullying and harassment Definition

Bullying is usually seen as acts or verbal comments that could psychologically or 'mentally' hurt or isolate a person in the workplace. Sometimes, bullying can involve negative physical contact as well. Bullying usually involves repeated incidents or a pattern of behavior that is intended to intimidate, offend, degrade or humiliate a particular person or group of people. It has also been described as the assertion of power through aggression

6. Risk Assessment - Qualitative

No actual measurement is used. It involves describing the qualities, e.g. the airborne concentration was high or serious; the injury sustained was minor.

7. Factors Affecting Probability and Severity of Risk

The likelihood or probability of the event occurring; and the consequence or harm realized if the event takes place. This is usually expressed as: Risk = Likelihood (or Probability) × Consequence (or Harm)

8. Tolerable - Risks

Tolerable - Risks that fall between the acceptable and unacceptable. Tolerability does not mean acceptable but means that society is prepared to endure such risks because of the benefits they give and because further risk reduction is grossly out of proportion in terms of time, cost, etc.

9. Workplace violence and aggression

Workplace violence and aggression is when a person is abused, threatened or assaulted at the workplace or while they’re working. It can cause both physical and psychological harm, making it a risk to health and safety.

10. types of violence

All types of violence are unacceptable. This includes:
Physical attack - whether the visible injury occurs or not
Animal attack - when an animal is used as a threat
Verbal abuse - when an employee feels threatened or intimidated and the abuse is personally directed. This also includes cyber-aggression through texts, email messages, or social networking sites Attack or damage to property or belongings of the employee
Any work-related incident involving an employee, or their family, happens away from the workplace.

11. Bullying and harassment Psychosomatic symptoms

Psychosomatic symptoms such as:
• Stomach pains.
• Headaches.
• Panic or anxiety, especially about going to work.
• Family tension and stress.
• Inability to concentrate.
• Low morale and productivity.

12. People who are the targets of bullying

People who are the targets of bullying may experience a range of effects. These reactions include:
• Shock.
• Anger.
• Feelings of frustration and/or helplessness.
• Increased sense of vulnerability.
• Loss of confidence.
• Physical symptoms such as:
• Inability to sleep.
• Loss of appetite.

13. Bullying affects

Bullying affects the overall "health" of an organization. An "unhealthy" workplace can have many effects. In general, these effects include:
• Increased absenteeism.
• Increased turnover.
• Increased stress.
• Increased costs for employee assistance programs (EAPs), recruitment, etc.
• Increased risk for incidents.
• Decreased productivity and motivation.
• Decreased morale.
• Reduced corporate image and customer confidence.
• Poor customer service

14. The Rules of Professional Conduct ().

The Rules of Conduct is a set of implementing laws of professional practice that seek to express the primary examples of ethical behavior consistent with the Code of Ethics

15. Workplace inspections.

A workplace inspection is the process of critically examining the workplace for the identification and mitigation of workplace hazards and to ensure that all standards are met and the workplace is in fact safe and free from any risks.

16. Safety Tours

Safety tours are usually conducted by management or senior management as part of their commitment to workplace safety. It also provides managers and senior managers with up-to-date knowledge of workplace day-to-day activities, as well as an opportunity for them to connect directly with employees to improve team relations.

17. Safety Sampling

The HSE defines safety sampling as the “systematic sampling of particular dangerous activities, processes or areas.” An example of safety sampling is taking a sample of the chemicals or gasses that employees work with or are exposed to, then conducting a lab analysis on the samples.

18. Safety Surveys

Safety surveys are general inspections of specific dangerous activities, processes or areas. It is similar to a safety tour, but focuses on high-risk workplace environments or processes. Examples of typical areas to conduct safety surveys include a mining site, drilling rig, and a laboratory that screens for infectious diseases.

19. Incident Inspections

Also known as emergency inspections, incident inspections are conducted after an incident caused a fatality, an injury, ill health, damage to property, or a near miss. These inspections are performed to identify the root cause so it can be mitigated to prevent similar incidents from happening again in the future.

20. Incident Investigations

Monitor the effectiveness of the measures you put in place to control the risks in your workplace. As part of your monitoring, you should investigate incidents to ensure that corrective action is taken, learning is shared and any necessary improvements are put in place.

21. Mean vs Median

Both are measures of where the center of a data set lies (called “Central Tendency” in stats), but they are usually different numbers. For example, take this list of numbers: 10, 10, 20, 40, 70. The mean (informally, the “average“) is found by adding all of the numbers together and dividing by the number of items in the set: 10 + 10 + 20 + 40 + 70 / 5 = 30. The median is found by ordering the set from lowest to highest and finding the exact middle. The median is just the middle number: 20. Sometimes the two will be the same number. For example, the data set 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 has a mean of 1 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 7 / 5 = 4 and a median (a middle) of 4

22. A Standard Deviation

A standard deviation (or σ) is a measure of how dispersed the data is in relation to the mean. Low standard deviation means data are clustered around the mean, and high standard deviation indicates data are more spread out.

23. Time Weighted Average

A time-weighted average is equal to the sum of the portion of each time period (as a decimal, such as 0.25 hour) multiplied by the levels of the substance or agent during the time period divided by the hours in the workday (usually 8 hours). The mean (informally, the “average“) is found by adding all of the numbers together and dividing by the number of items in the set: 10 + 10 + 20 + 40 + 70 / 5 = 30. The median is found by ordering the set from lowest to highest and finding the exact middle. The median is just the middle number: 20. Sometimes the two will be the same number. For example, the data set 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 has a mean of 1 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 7 / 5 = 4 and a median (a middle) of 4

24. What is a Percentage?

In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio that represents a fraction of 100. It is one of the ways to represent a dimensionless relationship between two numbers; other methods include ratios, fractions, and decimals. Percentages are often denoted by the symbol "%" written after the number.

25. What is the Median?

The median is the middle number in a data set. To find the median, list your data points in ascending order and then find the middle number. The middle number in this set is 28 as there are 4 numbers below it and 4 numbers above:
23, 24, 26, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33
Note: If you have an even set of numbers, average the middle two to find the median. For example, the median of this set of numbers is 28.5 (28 + 29 / 2):
23, 24, 26, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34 The mean (informally, the “average“) is found by adding all of the numbers together and dividing by the number of items in the set: 10 + 10 + 20 + 40 + 70 / 5 = 30.
The median is found by ordering the set from lowest to highest and finding the exact middle. The median is just the middle number: 20.
Sometimes the two will be the same number. For example, the data set 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 has a mean of 1 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 7 / 5 = 4 and a median (a middle) of 4

26. The role of an Occupational Hygienist

The role of an Occupational hygienist is to assist employers and employees improve workplace conditions and work practices by: • quantifying exposure levels and assessing the risk to employees, • recommending control measures to minimise exposure in accordance with legislation.

27. Risk Management Principles

Accept risks when benefits outweigh costs. Accept no unnecessary risk. Anticipate and manage risk by planning. Make risk decisions at the right level.

28. Risk Assessments

Risk assessment determines possible mishaps, their likelihood and consequences, and the tolerances for such events. The results of this process may be expressed in a quantitative or qualitative fashion.

29. The Risk Inventory

The risk inventory is done to create a checklist of potential risks to evaluate the likelihood of occurrence. Some organizations develop risk checklists based on past experiences. These checklists can be helpful in building a more comprehensive list.

30. Risk Matrix

The risk matrix is based on two intersecting factors: the likelihood that the risk event will occur, and the potential impact that the risk event will have on the business. In other words, it's a tool that helps you visualize the probability vs. the severity of a potential risk.

31. Prioritization

Risk prioritization is the process of identifying all the risks to a project and then deciding which ones are the most severe, so they can be addressed first. Prioritization should be based on the likelihood of a risk and the potential harm it poses to the organization.

32. Precautionary Principle

The precautionary principle is a broad epistemological, philosophical and legal approach to innovations with potential for causing harm when extensive scientific knowledge on the matter is lacking. It emphasizes caution, pausing and review before leaping into new innovations that may prove disastrous.

33. ALARA

ALARA stands for “as low as reasonably achievable”. ALARA means avoiding exposure to radiation that does not have a direct benefit to you, even if the dose is small. To do this, you can use three basic protective measures in radiation safety: time, distance, and shielding.

34. Weight of Evidence

The weight of evidence approach means that you use a combination of information from several independent sources to give sufficient evidence to fulfil an information requirement.

35. CSA Z731

CSA Z731 - Emergency Preparedness and Response
This Standard provides advice on planning, administration, training, resource utilization, auditing, and other aspects of emergency preparedness and response.

36. What is CSA standard z731 03?

The objective of this Standard is to establish minimum criteria for effective emergency preparedness and response. i) organizational reputation. This Standard provides advice on planning, administration, training, resource utilization, auditing, and other aspects of emergency preparedness and response.

37. What is CSA electrical rating?

The CSA mark on your product means it has been tested against applicable North American standards requirements. CSA marks are found on a wide variety of North American products: electrical and electronic, gas-fired, personal protective equipment and many more.

38. CSA better than UL?

Is Unlike the UL Mark, a CSA-Listed designation holds value all around the world, not only in its country of origin. For a product to receive this prestigious label, it must also pass extensive tests that align with standards from the following certifying bodies: American National Standards Institute (ANSI) UL.

39. NFPA 1600

NFPA 1600 (Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity/Continuity of Operations Programs) is a standard published by the National Fire Protection Association.

40. What NFPA standard is fire sprinkler?

NFPA 13 is an installation standard and does not specify which buildings or structures require a sprinkler system. NFPA 13 specifies how to properly design and install a sprinkler system using the proper components and materials after it has been determined that a sprinkler system is required.

41. The workplace violence

Workplace violence is any act or threat of physical violence, harassment, intimidation, or other threatening disruptive behavior that occurs at the work site.

42. The Hierarchy of Controls

The hierarchy of control is a system for controlling risks in the workplace. The hierarchy of control is a step-by-step approach to eliminating or reducing risks and it ranks risk controls from the highest level of protection and reliability through to the lowest and least reliable protection.

43. Hierarchy of Controls

Hierarchy of Controls
Elimination.
Substitution.
Engineering controls.
Administrative controls.
Personal protective equipment (PPE)

44. hazard communication symbols or GB CLP hazard pictograms

Explosive (Symbol: exploding bomb)
Flammable (Symbol: flame)
Oxidising (Symbol: flame over circle)
Corrosive (Symbol: corrosion)
Acute toxicity (Symbol: skull and crossbones)
Hazardous to the environment (Symbol: environment)
Health hazard/Hazardous to the ozone layer (Symbol: exclamation mark)

45. Routine inspections

Routine inspections are conducted on a regular time basis, such as daily, weekly, or monthly. They can also be conducted based on a trigger, such as inspecting heavy machinery before starting a shift.

46. Emergency or incident inspections

Emergency or incident inspections, as mentioned in the previous section, are only required after an incident with no routine or planning involved. Emergency inspections can also apply to hazards before incidents happen. For example, inspecting nearby machinery to identify the source of a water puddle spotted on a factory floor.

47. Planned inspections

Planned inspections include investigating specific matters that require a certain timeframe. These inspections don’t have a blanket routine frequency because it depends on the particular matter. For example, a specific piece of equipment may need its parts tested for safety every six months. At the same time, the Canada government recommends private-sector employers to offer their onsite workforce a minimum of two lateral flow tests for COVID-19 every week.

48. Accident

Accident: In HSE terms an accident refers to an event that causes an injury or ill-health

49. Incident

Incident: An incident does not concern ill health or injury. They are normally concerning a near miss or undesired circumstance. A near miss is an event or circumstance that has the potential to cause harm whilst an undesired circumstance is a set of circumstances that can cause injury or ill health.

50. Immediate Cause

Immediate cause: This is the most obvious reason why an event has occurred. Multiple immediate causes may be detected in an adverse event.

51. Hazard

Hazard: a hazard has the potential to cause harm to property, products, environment, and can lead to production losses and increased liabilities.

52. Lost-Time Injury

Lost-Time Injury: When an employee gets injured while carrying out a work task for the employer and cannot come in for their next shift or a longer period.

53. Near Miss

near miss: an event not causing harm, but has the potential to cause injury or ill health (in this guidance, the term near miss will include dangerous occurrences)

54. Undesired circumstance

undesired circumstance: a set of conditions or circumstances that have the potential to cause injury or ill health, e.g. untrained nurses handling heavy patients

55. What are the types of sprinklers NFPA?

Types of sprinkler systems permissible by NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, are wet, dry, preaction, and deluge. Other types of extinguishing systems, such as clean agent or water mist, are addressed by other standards.

56. What are the 4 types of fire sprinkler heads?

There are 4 common varieties of fire sprinkler heads: pendent, upright, sidewall & concealed - each with their own particular use.

57. Which liquid is used in fire sprinkler? glycerin-

The typical sprinkler head consists of a plug held in place by a trigger mechanism. The most common type of trigger is a glass ampule filled with a glycerin-based liquid that expands when heated. 155º As soon as the trigger mechanism is heated to the required temperature, it trips and the water is released.

58. What are the 4 types of workplace violence?

Types of Workplace Violence
Type 1: Criminal Intent. ...
Type 2: Customer/Client. ...
Type 3: Worker-on-Worker. ...
Type 4: Personal Relationship.

59. What is the main type of workplace violence?

The full spectrum of workplace violence encompasses four main threats, going beyond current and former employees. Active shooting situations, physical violence, threats, intimidation and harassment all constitute workplace violence. While workplace violence may happen at any business, it's not entirely arbitrary.

60. The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) pictograms

The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires pictograms on labels to alert users of the chemical hazards to which they may be exposed. Each pictogram consists of a symbol on a white background framed within a red border and represents a distinct hazard(s).

61. What is hazard communication?

The goal of the Hazard Communication Program (also known as HazCom) is to protect people from injuries and illnesses associated with using hazardous chemicals in the workplace. People have the right-to-know and understand the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are exposed to at work.

62. What are the 8 major hazards?

There are 8 common workplace hazards that can kill or have the potential to result in a serious injury. They include working at heights, suspended loads, electricity, isolating equipment, hazardous materials, physical separation and barricading, fire and emergencies, and confined spaces.

63. What are elements of hazard communication?

These are the Five elements of the Hazard Communication Standard. They are: Chemical Inventory, Written Program, Labels, Material Safety Data Sheets, and Training.

64. What are the 4 types of safety signs?

These 4 important safety signs can be broken into categories: Prohibition, Warning, Mandatory and Emergency.

65. What are the 7 types of signs?

There are seven categories of safety signs: mandatory, prohibition, warning, danger, fire, emergency information, and restriction.

66. What are the four 4 kinds of signs?

There are four types of wayfinding signs: identification, directional, informational, and regulatory. As standalone signs, they serve a specific role; as part of the greater wayfinding system, they inform each other.

67. What is the Globally Harmonized System (GHS)?

GHS stands for the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. It is a system of hazard communication for chemical hazards that can be adopted by countries around the world. GHS was developed by a United Nations (UN) international team of hazard communication experts.

68. SDS – Safety Data Sheet.

The GHS SDS has 16 sections in a set order, and minimum information is prescribed.

69. Labels - With the GHS,

Labels - With the GHS, certain information will appear on the label. Standardized elements such as chemical identify, hazard statements, signal words and symbols will appear on the label according to the classification of that chemical or mixture. Precautionary statements may also be required, if adopted by your regulatory authority.

70. Hazard group

Hazard group – While not given a formal definition, GHS divides hazards into three major groups – health, physical and environmental.

71. GHS Hazard Class

Class – Class is the term used to describe the different types of hazards. For example, Gases under Pressure is an example of a class in the physical hazards group.

72. GHS Category

– Category is the name used to describe the sub-sections of classes. For example, Self-Reactive Chemicals have 7 categories. Each category has rules or criteria to determine what chemicals are assigned to that category. Categories are assigned numbers (or letters) with category 1 (or A) being the most hazardous.

73. GHS Hazard Statement

Hazard Statement – For each category of a class, a standardized statement is used to describe the hazard. For example, the hazard statement for chemicals which meet the criteria for the class Self-heating substances and mixtures, Category 1 is Self-heating; may catch fire. This hazard statement would appear both on the label and on the SDS.

74. Precautionary Statement

Precautionary Statement – These statements are standardized phrases that describe the recommended steps to be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects from exposure to or resulting from improper handling or storage of a hazardous product.

75. GHS Signal word

Signal word – There are two signal words used by the GHS – Danger and Warning. These signal words are used to communicate the level of hazard on both the label and the SDS. The appropriate signal word to use is set out by the classification system. For example, the signal word for Self-heating substances and mixtures, Category 1 is Danger while Warning is used for the less serious Category 2. There are categories where no signal word is used.

76. Computer control systems

A control system is a type of computer system that manages, commands and directs other devices or systems. There are open and closed loop control systems. They usually take an input, process it and get an output.

77. Health promotion and disease prevention programs

Health promotion and disease prevention programs focus on keeping people healthy. Health promotion programs aim to engage and empower individuals and communities to choose healthy behaviors, and make changes that reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases and other morbidities.

78. Health promotion

Defined by the World Health Organization, health promotion: “enables people to increase control over their own health. It covers a wide range of social and environmental interventions that are designed to benefit and protect individual people’s health and quality of life by addressing and preventing the root causes of ill health, not just focusing on treatment and cure.”

79. What is in immunization?

Immunization is the process of giving a vaccine to a person to protect them against disease. Immunity (protection) by immunization is similar to the immunity a person would get from disease, but instead of getting the disease you get a vaccine. This is what makes vaccines such powerful medicine. there are five main types of vaccines: attenuated (live) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, toxoid vaccines, subunit vaccines, and conjugate vaccines.

80. Personal protective equipment,

Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as “PPE”, is equipment worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards. Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot and eye protection, protective hearing devices (earplugs, muffs) hard hats, respirators and full body suits.

81. What is hand hygiene?

Hand hygiene is a way of cleaning one's hands that substantially reduces potential pathogens (harmful microorganisms) on the hands. Hand hygiene is considered a primary measure for reducing the risk of transmitting infection among patients and health care personnel.

82. Medical Screening

Screening can detect a problem early, before you have any symptoms. Finding out about a problem early can mean that treatment is more effective. Finding out you have a health problem or an increased chance of a health problem can help people make better informed decisions about their health.

83. The Employee and Family Assistance Program (EFAP)

The Employee and Family Assistance Program (EFAP) is a confidential and voluntary counselling support service that provides you and your family with the help you need to resolve a wide range of personal, work, health or life issues. EAPs usually offer services, such as employee education, individual assessments, organizational assessments, management consultation, referrals to treatment, and short-term counseling.

84. Basic wellness programs

A program intended to improve and promote health and fitness that's usually offered through the work place, although insurance plans can offer them directly to their enrollees. The program allows your employer or plan to offer you premium discounts, cash rewards, gym memberships, and other incentives to participate.

85. Stress management

Stress management offers a range of strategies to help you better deal with stress and difficulty (adversity) in your life. Managing stress can help you lead a more balanced, healthier life. Stress is an automatic physical, mental and emotional response to a challenging event. It's a normal part of everyone's life.

86. Physical fitness

Physical fitness involves the performance of the heart and lungs, and the muscles of the body. And, since what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds, fitness influences to some degree qualities such as mental alertness and emotional stability.

87. Weight management

Weight management refers to behaviors, techniques, and physiological processes that contribute to a person's ability to attain and maintain a healthy weight. Most weight management techniques encompass long-term lifestyle strategies that promote healthy eating and daily physical activity.

88. What is a return to work?

A return to work meeting is often just an informal chat between an employee and their line manager. These meetings are sometimes called return to work interviews.

89. Disability management programs

Disability management programs provide a structured agreement between management and workers that, regardless of the cause of an injury or illness, facilitates early return to work without jeopardizing the health of the employee. Workplace-based programs minimize the economic, human and social costs of disability.

90. Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation is defined as “a set of interventions designed to optimize functioning and reduce disability in individuals with health conditions in interaction with their environment”. Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also known as physiatrist, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to people with physical impairments or disabilities.

91. Modified work

Modified work allows injured workers to return to work at the earliest opportunity, can aid in overall recovery and reduce the cost of injury or illness. You can positively impact your premiums by providing your worker with a suitable and timely return to modified work.

92. Substance use disorder (SUD)

Substance use disorder (SUD) is a mental health condition in which a person has a problematic pattern of substance use that causes distress and/or impairs their life. SUD exists on a spectrum and may be mild, moderate or severe. It typically involves an overpowering desire to use the substance, increased tolerance to the substance and/or withdrawal symptoms when you stop taking the substance. A person can have more than one substance use disorder at a time, such as alcohol use disorder and cocaine use disorder. Substance use disorder can significantly impact your health, relationships and overall quality of life. It can also be life-threatening. It’s crucial to seek help as soon as you develop signs of SUD.

93. Fatigue effects on worker health and performance

People who are fatigued are more easily distracted, are less able to concentrate, tend to forget things more easily, take longer to solve problems, make more mistakes, have slower reaction times, and take more risks than they might otherwise. At the extreme, they might fall asleep while operating a vehicle!

94. What are the 3 types of fatigue?

There are three types of fatigue: transient, cumulative, and circadian: Transient fatigue is acute fatigue brought on by extreme sleep restriction or extended hours awake within 1 or 2 days.

95. The psychosocial working environment

The psychosocial working environment is a collective term that covers the interaction between people in a workplace, the work of the individual and its impact on the employee, organisational conditions and the culture of the organisation.

96. Work-life balance

Work-life balance is typically defined as the amount of time you spend doing your job versus the amount of time you spend with loved ones or pursuing personal interests and hobbies. When work demands more of your time or attention, you will have less time to handle your other responsibilities or passions.

97. Work-life integration

Work-life integration—or the synergistic blending of our personal and professional responsibilities—has become an increasingly popular concept. From this perspective, work is simply one aspect of our lives, which needs to be considered alongside other important concerns, such as our home and family lives, our community, and our personal well-being. Rather than resembling a scale with two competing sides, work-life integration more resembles a Venn diagram of overlapping interests.

98. Internal Response System (IRS),

The internal responsibility system is the underlying philosophy of the occupational health and safety legislation in all Canadian jurisdictions. Its foundation is that everyone in the workplace - both workers and employers - is responsible for his or her own safety and for the safety of co-workers.

99. Due diligence

Due diligence looks at what was done before an accident occurred, not what was done after. Under Canadian occupational health and safety legislation, everyone responsible for health and safety must ensure that all precautions reasonable under the circumstances are taken.

100. Criminal liability,

If you are criminally liable, you are likely to be held responsible for breaking the law - whether it be potential or actual responsibility. Criminal liability is considered to determine whether a person will be charged and sentenced.

101. The Hazardous Products Act (HPA)

The Hazardous Products Act (HPA) requires suppliers of hazardous products to communicate the hazards associated with their products via product labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) as a condition of sale and importation for workplace use.

102. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act

The Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 is an act of the 36th Parliament of Canada, whose goal is to contribute to sustainable development through pollution prevention and to protect the environment, human life and health from the risks associated with toxic substances.

103. WHMIS

The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) is Canada's national hazard communication standard. The key elements of the system are hazard classification, cautionary labelling of containers, the provision of safety data sheets (SDSs) and worker education and training programs.

104. GHS chemical hazard classification

GHS uses three hazard classes: Health Hazards, Physical Hazards and Environmental Hazards. These aren't required by OSHA. Health hazards present dangers to human health (i.e. breathing or vision) while physical hazards cause damage to the body (like skin corrosion).

105. Supervisor key Safety Duties

Primary responsibility: safely direct work assigned by the employer. Ensure employees comply with the Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act and regulations. Take every reasonable precaution to ensure the health and safety of employees. Inform employees of the hazards associated with their work.

106. A Joint Health and Safety Committee (JHSC)

A Joint Health and Safety Committee (JHSC) is composed of worker and employer representatives. Together, their goal is to be mutually committed to improving health and safety in the workplace.

107. Duties of employees

As an employee under the Canada Labour Code, you are required to: use all safety materials, equipment, devices, and clothing that are provided by the employer and are intended to protect employees. follow procedures relating to the health and safety of employees.

108. Right to know

Right to know is a human right enshrined in law in several countries. UNESCO defines it as the right for people to "participate in an informed way in decisions that affect them, while also holding governments and others accountable".

109. Right to participate

The foundations of the right to participation are shaped by the possibility of any individual to be involved in decision-making which affects her/his interests. Everyone should be able to participate in society, to defend her/his interests, to help create a society, which also fulfils her/his interests and desires.

110. Right to refuse

Every competent adult has the right to refuse unwanted medical treatment. This is part of the right of every individual to choose what will be done to their own body, and it applies even when refusing treatment means that the person may die.

111. Occupational health and safety : violation tickets

As of January 1, 2014, workers and employers in contravention of ticketable provisions of OHS legislation can be issued tickets by OHS officers. OHS tickets will be similar to a traffic ticket: they are an on-the-spot penalty given out following an infraction of the law.

112. Compliance and Enforcement

An Order to Comply is a direction from a Safety Officer or the Chief Safety Officer directing or ordering a person to correct a deficiency that is causing or has caused a compliance issue and which could constitute an offense.

113. An administrative penalty

An administrative penalty is a monetary penalty that can be imposed on individuals or companies who fail to comply with requirements of a statute or regulation, an order given by a Ministry official, or a requirement of an authorization (permit, license, approval etc.).

114. The Public Prosecution Service of Canada (PPSC)

The Public Prosecution Service of Canada (PPSC) is a national, independent and accountable prosecuting authority whose main objective is to prosecute federal offences and provides legal advice and assistance to law enforcement. The Public Prosecution Service of Canada was established on December 12, 2006 by the Director of Public Prosecutions Act. A federal agency, the PPSC prosecutes offences on behalf of the Government of Canada.

115. Right to appeal

Subsection 129(7) of the Canada Labour Code, Part II, gives the right to appeal a decision of no danger made by an official delegated by the Minister of Labour. Section 146 of Part II gives the right to appeal directions issued by an official delegated by the Minister of Labour. If you are an employee (or a person designated by the employee) who refused to work because you believed there was a danger and you disagree with the official delegated by the Minister of Labour’s decision of no danger, you may appeal that decision. If you are an employer, employee or union that feels aggrieved by a direction issued by an official delegated by the Minister of Labour, you may appeal that direction.

116. Duties. Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians

Duties. Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians typically do the following: Inspect, test, and evaluate workplace environments, equipment, and practices to ensure that they follow safety standards and government regulations. Prepare written reports on their findings.

117. What is the training cycle?

The training cycle involves the development, delivery, and continuous improvement of a training program. It consists of systematic stages that ensure better training results. The training cycle starts long before a training session and lasts beyond the end of the training process.

118. Types of Training Methods

Types of Training Methods
Case Studies.
Coaching.
eLearning.
Instructor-Led Training.
Interactive Training.
On-the-Job Training.
Video-Based Training.

119. Explore five stages of the training process

Explore five stages of the training process:
Assess.
Motivate.
Design.
Deliver.
Evaluate.

120. Training and development

Training and development refers to educational activities within a company created to enhance the knowledge and skills of employees while providing information and instruction on how to better perform specific tasks.

121. What are the principles of training?

Training means engaging in activity to improve performance and/or fitness; this is best accomplished by understanding general sports training principles: overload, reversibility, progression, individualization, periodization, and specificity.

122. Integrated Health and Safety (IHS)

Integrated Health and Safety (IHS) is the strategic and systematic integration of distinct health and safety programs and policies into a continuum of organizational, personal, occupational, community and environmental activities that are replicable, measurable, and integrated across institutional silos, enhancing the SMS.

123. The Transformative Learning Theory

The Transformative Learning Theory has three fundamental components that facilitate the learning and transformation of adults in the business environment. These are critical reflection, the centrality of experience, and rational discourse.

124. Nerstrom Transformative Learning Model

What are the 4 stages of transformational learning?
The four phases are (a) having experiences; (b) making assumptions; (c) challenging perspectives; and (d) experiencing transformative learning. Transformative learning then becomes a new experience.

125. HSE safety program

HSE (Health, Safety and Environment) is a set of processes and procedures identifying potential hazards to a certain environment, developing best practices to reduce or remove those hazards, and then training employees for accident prevention, accident response, etc.

126. Safety training program

Safety training refers to learning programs designed to train employees on precautionary processes and procedures to mitigate risk or the chance of injury or fatality on the job. Safety training is a form of compliance training delivered to protect the organization and its people

127. What are the 4 routes of entry?

In order to understand how chemical hazards can affect you, it is important to first understand how chemicals can get into your body and do damage. The four main routes of entry are inhalation, ingestion, injection, and absorption through the skin and eyes.

128. What is the most common route of entry?

Inhalation is the most common route of entry a chemical can take to enter the body. Prevention - Personal protective equipment that provides protection from airborne contaminants includes respirators or masks appropriate for the specific contaminant.

129. Hazards and controls associated with gases

There are a number of risks when using gas such as explosion from damaged, overheated or poorly maintained cylinders, pipes equipment or appliances. There is also the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning and burns caused by contact with flame or hot surfaces.

130. Basic knowledge of Benzene

Benzene is a colourless, flammable liquid with a pleasant odour. It is used as a solvent in many areas of industries, such as rubber and shoe manufacturing, and in the production of other important substances such as styrene, phenol and cyclohexane. It is essential in the manufacture of detergents, pesticides, solvents and paint removers. It is present in fuels such as in gasoline up to the level of 5%. The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) in the workplace air over an 8- hour working day (as recommended in many countries) is 10 ppm (or 32 mg/m3). Some countries recommend even lower levels. The odour threshold is 12 ppm. The odour serves only as a warning of exposure. If you are handling benzene without smelling it, this does not mean that there is no exposure.

131. Chemical hazards

Chemical hazards are present anytime workers are exposed chemical substances. Examples include cleaning solutions and solvents, vapors and fumes, carbon monoxide and any other gases.

132. Difference between fumes and mists

Mist consists of fine drops of liquid (especially water drops) in the air. Fume are gaseous residues of combustion. Apart from gases and vapours smoke additionally contains solid matter in a very fine shape (often colloidal) such as soot, metal oxide particles or aerosols like drops of oil.

133. Types of mist are there

There are several different types of fog, including radiation fog, advection fog, valley fog, and freezing fog. Radiation fog forms in the evening when heat absorbed by the Earth's surface during the day is radiated into the air. As heat is transferred from the ground to the air, water droplets form.

134. Acoustic barriers

Acoustic barriers are panels made of sound absorbing material which are placed between the source of noise and the worker. Panels must be designed appropriately (e.g., panels placed in highly reflective rooms are not always effective in attenuating the noise that reaches the worker).

135. Noise permissible exposure limit

OSHA sets legal limits on noise exposure in the workplace. These limits are based on a worker's time weighted average over an 8 hour day. With noise, OSHA's permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 90 dBA for all workers for an 8 hour day.

136. Enclosure and isolation

Noisy equipment can be enclosed in spaces or rooms that have special acoustic features – such as sound isolating, acoustic louvers, or sealed windows and doors. The degree of sound attenuation will depend on the noise reduction properties of the materials used to build the room. Isolation is used to reduce the sound transmitted through vibrations. The equipment is isolated from radiating surfaces by materials such as springs, elastomeric materials, cork, and foam rubber. For example: heavy vibrating machinery can be supported by isolating springs and rubber inserts, or vibrating pipes can be supported by brackets that are padded by rubber isolators or by springs.

137. What is the emergency preparedness?

The term refers to the steps you take to make sure you are safe before, during and after an emergency or natural disaster. These plans are important for your safety in both natural disasters and man-made disasters.

138. Project risk management stages

Three focus on stages of project risk management:
ACAT: Avoid, control, accept, and transfer.
AMTA: Avoid, mitigate, transfer, accept.
SARA: Share, avoid, reduce, accept.

139. CSA Z731

The objective of this Standard is to establish minimum criteria for effective emergency preparedness and response. This Standard applies to all organizations (as defined in Clause 3.1) that may be affected by natural, technological, and human events that could have a detrimental impact on, among other things

140. NFPA 1600

Standard on Continuity, Emergency, and Crisis Management: The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission), recognized NFPA 1600 as our National Preparedness Standard®. Widely used by public, not-for-profit, nongovernmental, and private entities on a local, regional, national, international and global basis, NFPA 1600 has been adopted by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as a voluntary consensus standard for emergency preparedness.

141. Workplace violence and harassment prevention programs.

To ensure a comprehensive program, organizations must design a Workplace Violence Prevention Program that consists of a workplace violence prevention policy and a program that includes; reporting, response and investigation procedures; environmental control procedures; work practice and administrative control

142. Pollution prevention (P2

Pollution prevention (P2) is any practice that reduces, eliminates, or prevents pollution at its source before it is created. As shown by the EPA Waste Management Hierarchy, P2, also known as "source reduction," is fundamentally different and, where feasible, more desirable than recycling, treatment or disposal.

143. GB CLP hazard pictograms

Explosive (Symbol: exploding bomb)
Flammable (Symbol: flame)
Oxidizing (Symbol: flame over circle)
Corrosive (Symbol: corrosion)
Acute toxicity (Symbol: skull and crossbones)
Hazardous to the environment (Symbol: environment)
Health hazard/Hazardous to the ozone layer (Symbol: exclamation mark)

144. What is a GHS Safety Data Sheet?

Safety data sheets (SDS) are a critically important part of the GHS and global chemical safety. They provide extensive information on a substance, its supplier and the safe handling and use of it. The information contained in the SDS is largely the same as the MSDS, except now the SDSs are required to be presented in a consistent user-friendly, 16-section format. This brief provides guidance to help workers who handle hazardous chemicals to become familiar with the format and understand the contents of the SDSs.

145. GHS Label Requirements

The Six Elements
Signal Word. The signal word indicates hazard level. ...
GHS Symbols (Hazard Pictograms) ...
Manufacturer Information. ...
Precautionary Statements / First Aid. ...
Hazard Statements. ...
Product Name or Identifiers.

146. Research databases

Research databases are organized collections of computerized information or data such as periodical articles, books, graphics and multimedia that can be searched to retrieve information. Databases can be general or subject oriented with bibliographic citations, abstracts, and or full text.

147. What is hazard awareness?

What is Hazard Awareness. Hazard awareness is a repetitive learning behavior, especially in a construction environment. The wellbeing of yourself and others depends on the awareness of potential and existing hazards. Through training and plan task observations we learn to identify and to be more aware of hazards.

148. Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct Respect in the Workplace

Certificants are required to:
Support, promote and apply the principles of human rights, equity, dignity and respect in the workplace. Recognize that discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, language, national origin, political or religious affiliation, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status, family relationship and disability is prohibited.

149. Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct Integrity

Certificants are required to:
Maintain honesty, integrity, and objectivity in all activities. Protect and promote the safety and health of people, property and the environment above any consideration of self-interest. Avoid circumstances where compromise of conduct or conflict of interest may arise. Represent their qualifications and experience accurately and not knowingly make false or misleading statements.

150. Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct Competence

Certificants are required to:
Maintain competence in carrying out responsibilities and provide services in an honest and diligent manner. Provide sound judgement in pursuance of their duties. Recognize their limitations and perform only those services that may be handled competently based on one’s training and experience. Ensure persons working under their authority or supervision are competent to carry out the tasks assigned to them.

151. Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct

The purpose of the BCRSP Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct (the Code) is to provide guidance to ensure that each certificant adheres to high standards of integrity and competence. Competence is “the ability to perform a task, function or role up to a set of prescribed standards." Preamble: As a condition to obtaining and maintaining certification, each certificant commits to abide by the Code as adopted by the Board of Canadian Registered Safety Professionals (BCRSP). Each certificant pledges to subscribe not only to the letter but also to the spirit of the Code in all their activities.

152. classic motivation theory

Based on classic motivation theory, employee involvement suggests that employees will exert effort and work efficiently when they feel they are in control of their work, are given meaningful work, receive feedback on their performance, and are rewarded for the success of the business.

153. Building engagement

Building engagement means participating in its four essential components: enablement, energy, empowerment, and encouragement. If you want to create a workplace of truly engaged employees, each of these four elements must be alive and thriving in your organization.

154. What is employee commitment?

Employee commitment is an emotional attachment to and involvement with an organization. Employee commitment is a bond between the employee and the organization such that the employee wants to continue serving the organization and helping it achieve its objectives.

155. 4 steps to motivate your workforce

Provide clear expectations.
Provide regular recognition and praise.
Provide a clear understanding of the big picture.
Provide a caring company attitude.

156. The five steps of the TNA process

Defining strategic goals.
Outlining required skills and knowledge.
Evaluating current skills.
Locating performance gaps and causes.
Establishing training needs.

157. A training needs assessment

A training needs assessment indicates an employee's current skills and competency levels. This evaluation is then used to determine where each employee stands in terms of the required competency level needed for maximum performance and productivity in the present and future.

158. Unsafe Conditions vs Unsafe Acts

Unsafe Conditions can be defined as workplace environment risks to workers that may or may not have been identified, such as biological, chemical, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and physical conditions. Unsafe Acts can be defined as an employee ignoring the prescribed safety standards or company policies.

159. Unsafe act and unsafe condition difference

Machine rotating part without safety guard is example of unsafe condition, & operating of that machine is UNSAFE act performed by worker. Working at height is an unsafe condition, & not wearing PPEs while working at height is an unsafe act.

160. An unsafe behavior

An unsafe behavior is any act or behavior that deviates from a generally recognized safe way or specified method of doing a job and which increases the probabilities of an accident. Examples of unsafe behaviors in an industrial setting include: Lack of/improper use of PPE.

161. The 7 common workplace hazards

Safety hazards.
Biological hazards.
Physical hazards.
Ergonomic hazards.
Chemical hazards.
Work organization hazards.
Environmental hazards.

162. What are unsafe acts in aviation?

Unsafe acts also include two types of violation, defined in the report as “a deliberate breach of the rules by an operator who knows they are breaking air law” — routine, small-scale violations and “exceptional” violations that deviate significantly from the rules.

163. Hazards identification techniques - Observation

Observation of work being done. An act or instance of noticing or perceiving An act or instance of regarding attentively or watching The faculty or habit of observing or noticing The information or record secured by such an act

164. Task Analysis

Identify and analyze the individual steps within a particular task. A task analysis is simply a list of logically ordered component behaviors in any given task

165. “4 Ps” structure

1. Premises (Access/escape, Housekeeping, Working environment)
2. Plant and substances (Machinery guarding, local exhaust ventilation, and Use/storage/separation of materials/chemicals)
3. Procedures (Permits-to-work., Use of PPEs, Procedures & Protocols followed)
4. People (Health surveillance, People’s behavior, Appropriate authorized person)

166. Checklists

Cover key issues to be monitored. A checklist is a tool that project managers use to stay organized. Checklists can help project managers keep track of project tasks, requirements, goals, and deadlines.

167. Employee Input

Involve employees with relevant experience and knowledge as they are likely to have the best understanding of the hazards; involvement also increases ‘ownership’ of the assessment and hopefully compliance with any control measures identified.

168. Hazards identification techniques - Incident Reports

Each company should maintain its own records of all accidents that have occurred.

169. Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)

A hazard and operability study ( HAZOP ) is a structured and systematic examination of a complex plan or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment. The intention of performing a HAZOP is to review the design to pick up design and engineering issues that may otherwise not have been found.

170. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)

Failure mode and effects analysis ( FMEA ; often written with "failure modes" in plural) is the process of reviewing as many components, assemblies, and subsystems as possible to identify potential failure modes in a system and their causes and effects.

171. Fault tree analysis (FTA)

Fault Tree Analysis is a graphic failure analysis tool used to deduct causes of undesired results and failures at the system level.

172. Key Steps in a Risk Assessment

Step 1: Identify the hazards.
Step 2: Decide who might be harmed and how.
Step 3: Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions.
Step 4: Record your findings and implement them.
Step 5: Review your assessment and update if necessary.

173. Risk Assessment - Quantitative

A measurement of magnitude is involved, e.g. there were four fatalities due to falls from a height over a 12-month period at Business X; the airborne concentration of formaldehyde in a workplace was measured as 13ppm.

174. Risk Assessment - Semi-Quantitative

Semi-quantitative risk assessments may also use a simple matrix to combine estimates of likelihood and consequence in order to place risks in rank order.

175. Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on a near-atomic scale to produce new structures, materials and devices. The technology promises scientific advancement in many sectors such as medicine, consumer products, energy, materials and manufacturing.

176. What are the 7 principles of auditing?

The basic principles of auditing are confidentiality, integrity, objectivity, independence, skills and competence, work performed by others, documentation, planning, audit evidence, accounting system and internal control, and audit reporting.

177. What Are the 5 C's of Internal Audit?

Internal audit reports often outline the criteria, condition, cause, consequence, and corrective action.

178. A 5S audit

A 5S audit app is a tool used by teams of workers across various industries such as manufacturing, hospitality, and logistics to evaluate their adherence to the 5S principles: Seiri (Sort), Seiton (Systematize), Seiso (Shine), Seiketsu (Standardize), and Shitsuke (Sustain).

179. How many principles of auditing are there?

7 audit principles: For reliable audits, there are 7 audit principles that an auditor should adhere to, set out by ISO 19011:2018 Guidelines for Auditing Management Systems.
1. Integrity
The foundation of professionalism.
2. Fair Presentation: The obligation to report truthfully and accurately.
3. Due Professional Care: The application of diligence and judgment in auditing
. 4. Confidentiality: Security of information.
5. Independence: The basis for the impartiality of the audit and objectivity of the audit conclusions.
6. Evidence-based approach: The rational method for reaching reliable and reproducible audit conclusions in a systematic audit process.
7. Risk-based approach: An audit approach that considers risks and opportunities.

180. Checklists

A checklist helps to clarify inspection responsibilities, controls inspection activities and provides a report of inspection activities. Checklists help with on-the-spot recording of findings and comments but be careful. Do not allow the inspection team to become so intent on noting the details listed in the checklist that it misses other hazardous conditions. Use checklists only as a basic tool. Refer to the related documents for sample checklists that you can use as a guide to develop a checklist that is customized for your workplace.

181. Periodic inspections

Periodic inspections are regular, planned inspections of the critical components of equipment or systems that have a high potential for causing serious injury or illness, or are necessary for emergency response. The inspections are often part of preventive maintenance procedures or hazard control programs. Laws and regulations may specify that qualified or competent persons must inspect certain types of equipment, such as elevators, boilers, pressure vessels, hoists and cranes, scaffolding, transport docks, warehouse racking, vehicles, fire suppression systems and fire extinguishers at determined points in the work process and at regular intervals (e.g., monthly, quarterly, annually).

182. Incident Investigations

An incident investigation is the account and analysis of an incident based on information gathered by a thorough examination of all contributing factors and causes involved. It is widely accepted that incidents occur as a result of a chain of events.

183. Elements of an Incident Investigation

Elements of an incident investigation include: preparation, on-site investigation and development of a report, with recommendations for prevention. Provide training to investigators, including management, workers, safety committee members and union representatives.

184. Statistics Mean

In statistics, the mean is one of the measures of central tendency, apart from the mode and median. Mean is nothing but the average of the given set of values. It denotes the equal distribution of values for a given data set. The mean, median and mode are the three commonly used measures of central tendency.

185. Percentages

One of the most frequent ways to represent statistics is by percentage. Percent simply means "per hundred" and the symbol used to express percentage is %. One percent (or 1%) is one hundredth of the total or whole and is therefore calculated by dividing the total or whole number by 100.

186. A Standard Deviation (or σ)

A standard deviation (or σ) is a measure of how dispersed the data is in relation to the mean. Low standard deviation means data are clustered around the mean, and high standard deviation indicates data are more spread out.

187. Time Weighted Average

A time-weighted average is equal to the sum of the portion of each time period (as a decimal, such as 0.25 hour) multiplied by the levels of the substance or agent during the time period divided by the hours in the workday (usually 8 hours).

188. What Is the Mode?

The mode is the value that appears most frequently in a data set. A set of data may have one mode, more than one mode, or no mode at all. Other popular measures of central tendency include the mean, or the average of a set, and the median, the middle value in a set.

189. A Job Safety Analysis (JSA)

A job safety analysis (JSA) is a procedure which helps integrate accepted safety and health principles and practices into a particular task or job operation. In a JSA, each basic step of the job is to identify potential hazards and to recommend the safest way to do the job.

190. Task Analyses

Task analysis is a fundamental tool of human factors engineering. It entails analyzing how a task is accomplished, including a detailed description of both manual and mental activities, task and element durations, task frequency, task allocation, task complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment, and any other unique factors involved in or required for one or more people to perform a given task.

191. A Process Flow Analyses.

A process flow is a way to visualize each subsequent step that your team goes through when working toward a goal. By visualizing these steps in a diagram or flowchart, everyone can easily understand what order they have to complete tasks. Improving processes is critical for getting higher-impact work done, faster.

192. What is the meaning of safety in design?

Safety in Design is a process that integrates hazard identification and risk assessment methods early in the design. The process considers how to eliminate, isolate or minimize the risks of death, injury and ill health to those who construct, operate, maintain, decommission or demolish an asset. Safe design applies to every stage in the life cycle from conception through to disposal. It involves eliminating hazards or minimizing risks as early in the life cycle as possible. The consistent application of hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control processes is required to achieve safe design.

193. WHMIS

The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) is Canada's national hazard communication standard. The key elements of the system are hazard classification, cautionary labelling of containers, the provision of safety data sheets (SDSs) and worker education and training programs.

194. GHS

Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. The Globally Harmonized System (GHS) is an international approach to hazard communication, providing agreed criteria for classification of chemical hazards, and a standardized approach to label elements and safety data sheets.

195. Point of operations

The point of operation is where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock. The power transmission apparatus is all components of the mechanical system which transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. Point of operations means that point at which cutting, shaping, boring, or forming is accomplished upon the stock. The power transmission device refers to all parts of a mechanical system that transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. That's the point of operation, which is where work is performed on the material, such as shaping, cutting, boring, drilling, etc.

196. What does a light curtain do?

The simplest function of a light curtain is when light beams are obstructed and the outputs turn off, which signals a stop to the associated hazardous movement(s). If no incident has occurred and the area is safe, a reset can be performed.

197. An interlock

An interlock is a feature that makes the state of two mechanisms or functions mutually dependent. It may be used to prevent undesired states in a finite-state machine, and may consist of any electrical, electronic, or mechanical devices or systems

198. Personal protective equipment.

Personal protective equipment is protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter.

199. Biomechanics

Biomechanics is the study of the physical structure of living organisms. As related to workplace ergonomics, the human body is viewed as a system of levers. At the simplest level, by knowing the weight of a held object and the distance from a joint, the load on that joint can easily be calculated.

200. What is anatomy ergonomics?

Ergonomics: The science of making things fit people. Ergonomics uses knowledge from the fields of anatomy, mechanics, physiology, and psychology to utilize human energy most effectively. Something that is ergonomic is designed for safe, comfortable, and efficient use.

201. What is physiological ergonomics?

Two basic areas of ergonomics can be distinguished: physiological ergonomics, which deals with the design and adaptation of work environments, and cognitive ergonomics, which considers the mental processes such as perception, attention and information processing.

202. What is physiological ergonomics?

Two basic areas of ergonomics can be distinguished: physiological ergonomics, which deals with the design and adaptation of work environments, and cognitive ergonomics, which considers the mental processes such as perception, attention and information processing.

203. Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) are a group of painful disorders of muscles, tendons, and nerves. Injuries can result from overuse and develop over time. Work activities which are frequent and repetitive, or activities with awkward postures cause these disorders which may be painful during work or at rest.

204. Office Ergonomics Checklist

Posture – Activity – Exercise. Maintain proper posture, paying careful attention to positioning of head, neck/spine, arms/wrists, hips/thighs and feet. ...
Lighting – Air – Noise. Maintain appropriate light levels for specific tasks. ...
Work Style – Organization – Breaks.

205. The "Quick Fix"

The "Quick Fix" may be used for a job if employees have experienced no more than one MSD incident in that job and there have been no more than two MSD incidents in the employer's entire establishment during the last 18 months. If eligible for the "Quick Fix", the employer must act quickly to identify the likely causes of the MSD and develop measures to reduce exposure using where necessary a health care professional or temporary work restrictions together with work restriction protection

206. The CSA Standard Z412-17 Office ergonomics

The CSA Standard Z412-17 Office ergonomics – An application standard for workplace ergonomics recommends that alternating between sitting and standing, or variations on sitting and standing postures (e.g., reclining, forward tilting, and semi-standing) are encouraged in order to avoid the negative effects of prolonged.

207. What is the role of ergonomics in design?

Ergonomics is designing a job to fit the worker so the work is safer and more efficient. Implementing ergonomic solutions can make employees more comfortable and increase productivity. Why is ergonomics important?

208. The role of an ergonomist

Ergonomists ensure that the design of products, tasks, and work methods is compatible with human performance. They evaluate human and machine systems by observing, measuring, and grading how people interact with each other and their equipment and workspaces. They do this to maximize safety, efficiency, and well-being.

209. National Fire Prevention Association

The National Fire Protection Association is a U.S. based international nonprofit organization devoted to eliminating death, injury, property and economic loss due to fire, electrical and related hazards.

210. Underwriters Laboratory

The UL enterprise is a global safety science company headquartered in Northbrook, Illinois, composed of three organizations, UL Research Institutes, UL Standards & Engagement and UL Solutions.

211. Factory Mutual

FM Global is an American mutual insurance company based in Johnston, Rhode Island, United States, with offices worldwide, that specializes in loss prevention services primarily to large corporations throughout the world in the Highly Protected Risk property insurance market sector.

212. Canadian Standards Association,

The CSA Group is a standards organization which develops standards in 57 areas. CSA publishes standards in print and electronic form, and provides training and advisory services. CSA is composed of representatives from industry, government, and consumer groups.

213. European Union

The European Union is a unique partnership between 27 European countries, known as Member States, or EU countries. Together they cover much of the European continent. The EU is home to around 447 million people, which is around 6 % of the world's population. Citizens of the EU countries are also EU citizens.

215. The National Building Code of Canada (NBC)

The National Building Code of Canada (NBC) 2020, developed by the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes and published by the National Research Council of Canada, sets out technical requirements for the design and construction of new buildings, as well as the alteration, change of use and demolition of existing

41. The National Fire Code of Canada (NFC)

The National Fire Code of Canada (NFC) 2020, developed by the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes and published by the National Research Council of Canada, sets out technical requirements for: • activities related to the construction, use or demolition of buildings and facilities • the condition of specific elements of buildings and facilities • the design or construction of specific elements of facilities related to certain hazards

216. Heat Transfer

Heat tends to flow from a hot substance to a cold substance. The colder of two bodies in contact will absorb heat until both objects are at the same temperature. Heat can travel throughout a burning building by three methods: conduction, convection and radiation.

217. Combustion

Fire is a by-product of a rapid combustion reaction. Combustion is the self-sustaining process of rapid oxidation of a fuel, which produces heat and light.

218. Backdraft

Backdraft occurs if improper ventilation allows additional oxygen to be presented during the Steady-State Burning Phase or Hot Smoldering Phase, causing an increase in combustion. This scenario is the most hazardous condition a Firefighter can face.

219. Classification of Fires

A) Class A fires involve wood, cloth, paper, rubber and many plastics. These fires can typically be put out with water or foam.
B) Class B fires involve flammable and combustible liquids, and/or gases such as gasoline, paint, alcohol and related substances. These fires are best managed by smothering the flames to remove the oxygen source or by removing the fuel source.
C) Class C fires involve live electrical equipment. The safest approach is to unplug or otherwise de-energize the source of the fire and treat it as Class A or B depending on what is burning.
D) Class D fires involve combustible metals and must be extinguished using specialized fire control agents.

220. The fire triangle or combustion triangle

Oxygen, heat, and fuel are frequently referred to as the "fire triangle." Add in the fourth element, the chemical reaction, and you actually have a fire "tetrahedron." The important thing to remember is: take any of these four things away, and you will not have a fire or the fire will be extinguished.

221. What are the basics of fire?

Oxygen, heat, and fuel are frequently referred to as the "fire triangle." Add in the fourth element, the chemical reaction, and you actually have a fire "tetrahedron." The important thing to remember is: take any of these four things away, and you will not have a fire or the fire will be extinguished.

222. What are the 4 types of fire extinguishers?

There are four classes of fire extinguishers – A, B, C and D – and each class can put out a different type of fire. Class A extinguishers will put out fires in ordinary combustibles including wood, cloth, rubber, paper, as well as many plastic materials.

223. What is the Color code of fire extinguisher?

Red – Water (both spray and mist) Blue – Dry powder. Cream – Foam. Black – Carbon dioxide (CO2)

224. Workplace Health Promotion (WHP)

Workplace Health Promotion (WHP) is the combined efforts of employers, employees and society to improve the health and well-being of people at work. This can be achieved through a combination of: improving the work organisation and the working environment promoting active participation encouraging personal development.

225. Workplace Inspections

Workplace inspections to identify health and safety hazards in the work place. to develop health and safety standards and procedures. to establish preventive controls. to monitor the effectiveness of controls. Here are some of the ways inspections can take place. Safety tours - general inspections of the workplace. Safety sampling - systematic sampling of particular dangerous activities, processes or areas. Safety surveys - general inspections of particular dangerous activities, processes or areas.

226. Incident Investigations

An incident investigation is the account and analysis of an incident based on information gathered by a thorough examination of all contributing factors and causes involved. It is widely accepted that incidents occur as a result of a chain of events.

227. Elements of an Incident Investigation

Elements of an incident investigation include: preparation, on-site investigation and development of a report, with recommendations for prevention. Provide training to investigators, including management, workers, safety committee members and union representatives.

228. Statistics Mean

In statistics, the mean is one of the measures of central tendency, apart from the mode and median. Mean is nothing but the average of the given set of values. It denotes the equal distribution of values for a given data set. The mean, median and mode are the three commonly used measures of central tendency.

229. Percentages

One of the most frequent ways to represent statistics is by percentage. Percent simply means "per hundred" and the symbol used to express percentage is %. One percent (or 1%) is one hundredth of the total or whole and is therefore calculated by dividing the total or whole number by 100.

230. A Standard Deviation (or σ)

A standard deviation (or σ) is a measure of how dispersed the data is in relation to the mean. Low standard deviation means data are clustered around the mean, and high standard deviation indicates data are more spread out.

231. Time Weighted Average

A time-weighted average is equal to the sum of the portion of each time period (as a decimal, such as 0.25 hour) multiplied by the levels of the substance or agent during the time period divided by the hours in the workday (usually 8 hours).

232. What Is the Mode?

The mode is the value that appears most frequently in a data set. A set of data may have one mode, more than one mode, or no mode at all. Other popular measures of central tendency include the mean, or the average of a set, and the median, the middle value in a set.

233. A Job Safety Analysis (JSA)

A job safety analysis (JSA) is a procedure which helps integrate accepted safety and health principles and practices into a particular task or job operation. In a JSA, each basic step of the job is to identify potential hazards and to recommend the safest way to do the job.

234. Task Analyses

Task analysis is a fundamental tool of human factors engineering. It entails analyzing how a task is accomplished, including a detailed description of both manual and mental activities, task and element durations, task frequency, task allocation, task complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment, and any other unique factors involved in or required for one or more people to perform a given task.

235. A Process Flow Analyses.

A process flow is a way to visualize each subsequent step that your team goes through when working toward a goal. By visualizing these steps in a diagram or flowchart, everyone can easily understand what order they have to complete tasks. Improving processes is critical for getting higher-impact work done, faster.

236. What is the meaning of safety in design?

Safety in Design is a process that integrates hazard identification and risk assessment methods early in the design. The process considers how to eliminate, isolate or minimize the risks of death, injury and ill health to those who construct, operate, maintain, decommission or demolish an asset. Safe design applies to every stage in the life cycle from conception through to disposal. It involves eliminating hazards or minimizing risks as early in the life cycle as possible. The consistent application of hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control processes is required to achieve safe design.

237. WHMIS

The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) is Canada's national hazard communication standard. The key elements of the system are hazard classification, cautionary labelling of containers, the provision of safety data sheets (SDSs) and worker education and training programs.

238. GHS

Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. The Globally Harmonized System (GHS) is an international approach to hazard communication, providing agreed criteria for classification of chemical hazards, and a standardized approach to label elements and safety data sheets.

239. Point of operations

The point of operation is where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock. The power transmission apparatus is all components of the mechanical system which transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. Point of operations means that point at which cutting, shaping, boring, or forming is accomplished upon the stock. The power transmission device refers to all parts of a mechanical system that transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. That's the point of operation, which is where work is performed on the material, such as shaping, cutting, boring, drilling, etc.

240. What does a light curtain do?

The simplest function of a light curtain is when light beams are obstructed and the outputs turn off, which signals a stop to the associated hazardous movement(s). If no incident has occurred and the area is safe, a reset can be performed.

241. An interlock

An interlock is a feature that makes the state of two mechanisms or functions mutually dependent. It may be used to prevent undesired states in a finite-state machine, and may consist of any electrical, electronic, or mechanical devices or systems

242. Personal protective equipment.

Personal protective equipment is protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter.

243. What is bonding?

Bonding is used to reduce the risk of electric shocks to anyone who may touch two separate metal parts when there is a fault somewhere in the supply of electrical installation. By connecting bonding conductors between particular parts, it reduces the voltage there might have been.

244. Electrical grounding

Electrical grounding is the process of directing excess electricity to the ground via a wire. Known as a grounding wire, it's an essential safety component in most electrical systems. The grounding wire will discharge excess electricity safely to the ground so that it doesn't cause injuries or fires.

245. Electrical circuit-interrupters

Electrical circuit-interrupters, such as AFCI's (arc-fault circuit-interrupters) and GFCI's (ground-fault circuit-interrupters), are devices required by the National Electrical Code® (NEC®) that are designed specifically to help prevent fires and electric shock.

246. Material handling

Material handling is the movement, protection, storage and control of materials and products throughout manufacturing, warehousing, distribution, consumption and disposal.

247. Lockout tagout (LOTO)

Lockout tagout is the de-energizing and securing of equipment, machinery or processes so hazardous energy isn't re-introduced during servicing or repair. This includes closing electrical circuits and valves, neutralizing extreme temperatures, securing moving parts and more.

248. Electrical hazards

The main hazards of working with electricity are: electric shock and burns from contact with live parts. injury from exposure to arcing, fire from faulty electrical equipment or installations.