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SMS 250 Flashcards

1. value-based safety

Values-Based Safety® creates a partnership between employees and management that encourages all levels of employees to conduct safety observations and have meaningful conversations about safety.

2. The Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP)

The Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP) promote effective worksite-based safety and health. In the VPP, management, labor, and OSHA establish cooperative relationships at workplaces that have implemented a comprehensive safety and health management system.

3. A mission statement

A mission statement is defined as an action-based statement that declares the purpose of an organization and how they serve their customers. This sometimes includes a description of the company, what it does, and its objectives. A mission statement is a short summary of your company's purpose.

4. SMART

The SMART in SMART goals stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-Bound. Defining these parameters as they pertain to your goal helps ensure that your objectives are attainable within a certain time frame

5. Internal audits

Internal audits focus on measuring current performance and finding areas for improvement.

6. External audits focus

External audits focus on proving the accuracy and veracity of financial statements. Auditor: External auditors are from a third party while internal auditors work on a company's behalf.

7. The Purpose of Management of Change

An MOC is used to ensure that the environmental, health, and safety risks are carefully evaluated and controlled prior to implementing significant changes. The MOC process gives employers a chance to identify potential new hazards that could result from these changes.

8. The Swiss cheese model

The Swiss cheese model of accident causation is a model used in risk analysis and risk management, including aviation safety, engineering, healthcare, emergency service organizations, and as the principle behind layered security, as used in computer security and defense in depth.

9. The BowTie model

The BowTie model moves the left to right 'Source to Consequence' elements to a top-to-bottom format in a table. Each part in the BowTie can then be linked to specific controls. This is best done by creating a separate list of controls because many controls relate to more than one escalation factor or barrier.

10. leading indicator vs lagging indicator

If a leading indicator informs business leaders of how to produce desired results, a lagging indicator measures current production and performance. While a leading indicator is dynamic but difficult to measure, a lagging indicator is easy to measure but hard to change.

11. The seven principles of adult learning

The seven principles of adult learning include self-direction, transformation, experience, mentorship, mental orientation, motivation, and readiness to learn. Adult learning theories can positively impact adult learning experiences both in the classroom and on the job.

12. What Is Learning Retention?

Learning retention is a person's ability to transfer new information into their long-term memory so that it is easy for them to recall and put that knowledge to use in the future. In simpler words, learning retention is all about making new knowledge stick for a long time.

13. The learning pyramid

The learning pyramid, also called the "cone of learning," is an education model theorizing that some teaching methods help students remember information more than others. To represent how much information students can recall, the model assigns each approach a percentage out of 100.

14. Components of an effective OHS management system

Management leadership and commitment. ... Identifying hazards and managing risk. ... Inspection of premises, equipment, workplaces & work practices. ... Investigation of incidents. ... Joint health and safety committee & representatives. ... Occupational health and safety programs.

15. classic motivation theory

Based on classic motivation theory, employee involvement suggests that employees will exert effort and work efficiently when they feel they are in control of their work, are given meaningful work, receive feedback on their performance, and are rewarded for the success of the business.

16. Building engagement

Building engagement means participating in its four essential components: enablement, energy, empowerment, and encouragement. If you want to create a workplace of truly engaged employees, each of these four elements must be alive and thriving in your organization.

17. What is employee commitment?

Employee commitment is an emotional attachment to and involvement with an organization. Employee commitment is a bond between the employee and the organization such that the employee wants to continue serving the organization and helping it achieve its objectives.

18. 4 steps to motivate your workforce

1. Provide clear expectations.
2. Provide regular recognition and praise.
3. Provide a clear understanding of the big picture.
4. Provide a caring company attitude.

19. The five steps of the TNA process

1. Defining strategic goals.
2. Outlining required skills and knowledge.
3. Evaluating current skills.
4. Locating performance gaps and causes.
5. Establishing training needs.

20. A training needs assessment

A training needs assessment indicates an employee's current skills and competency levels. This evaluation is then used to determine where each employee stands in terms of the required competency level needed for maximum performance and productivity in the present and future.

21. Unsafe Conditions vs Unsafe Acts

Unsafe Conditions can be defined as workplace environment risks to workers that may or may not have been identified, such as biological, chemical, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and physical conditions. Unsafe Acts can be defined as an employee ignoring the prescribed safety standards or company policies.

22. Unsafe act and unsafe condition difference

Machine rotating part without safety guard is example of unsafe condition, & operating of that machine is UNSAFE act performed by worker. Working at height is an unsafe condition, & not wearing PPEs while working at height is an unsafe act.

23. An unsafe behavior

An unsafe behavior is any act or behavior that deviates from a generally recognized safe way or specified method of doing a job and which increases the probabilities of an accident. Examples of unsafe behaviors in an industrial setting include: Lack of/improper use of PPE.

24. The 7 common workplace hazards

1. Safety hazards.
2. Biological hazards.
3. Physical hazards.
4. Ergonomic hazards.
5. Chemical hazards.
6. Work organization hazards.
Environmental hazards.

25. What are unsafe acts in aviation?

Unsafe acts also include two types of violation, defined in the report as “a deliberate breach of the rules by an operator who knows they are breaking air law” — routine, small-scale violations and “exceptional” violations that deviate significantly from the rules.

26. Internal controls

Internal controls fall into three broad categories: detective, preventative, and corrective. Several internal control frameworks exist to facilitate the implementation of regulatory compliance obligations and enterprise risk management (ERM) best practices.

27. What is the OSHA definition of hazard?

A hazard is the potential for harm (physical or mental). In practical terms, a hazard often is associated with a condition or activity that, if left uncontrolled, can result in an injury or illness. Identifying hazards and eliminating or controlling them as early as possible will help prevent injuries and illnesses.

28. What is the difference between errors and violations?

The fundamental difference between errors and violations is that violations are deliberate, whereas errors are not. In other words, committing a violation is a conscious decision, whereas errors occur irrespective of one's will to avoid them.

29. What are the three 3 types of errors?

Types of Errors
(1) Systematic errors. With this type of error, the measured value is biased due to a specific cause. ...
(2) Random errors. This type of error is caused by random circumstances during the measurement process.
(3) Negligent errors.

30. What is a zero error?

Any indication that a measuring system gives a false reading when the true value of a measured quantity is zero, e.g., the needle on an ammeter failing to return to zero when no current flows. A zero error may result in a systematic uncertainty.

31. What is backlash error?

A backlash error is a motion error that occurs when changing the direction of gears. Backlash error occurs when, after reversing the direction of rotation of the thimble, the tip of the screw does not immediately begin moving in the opposite direction but remains stationary for a portion of the rotation.

32. Orientation Meeting

Introduction to the company, its mission, functions and culture. Review of company organizational chart. Employee handbook review. Benefits plan information, discussion and preliminary enrollment.

33. What are the 4 C's of new employee orientation?

According to Dr. Talya Bauer from the SHRM Foundation, successful onboarding involves proactively covering The Four C's. This stands for compliance, clarification, culture, and connection.

34. The four types of auditor opinions

1. Unqualified opinion-clean report.
2. Qualified opinion-qualified report.
3. Disclaimer of opinion-disclaimer report.
4. Adverse opinion-adverse audit report.

35. What is internal audit process?

Internal audit conducts assurance audits through a five-phase process which includes selection, planning, conducting fieldwork, reporting results, and following up on corrective action plans.

36. What are the various techniques of audit evidence?

Audit procedures to obtain audit evidence can include inspection, observation, confirmation, recalculation, reperformance, and analytical procedures, often in some combination, in addition to inquiry.

37. What are the different types of audit tools?

Three main types of auditing tools are there. They are, External audits, Internal audits, and Internal Revenue Service audits.

38. What is audit cycle?

The audit cycle involves five stages: preparing for audit; selecting criteria; measuring performance level; making improvements; sustaining improvements.

39. Definition of Internal Auditing

It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes.

40. What is internal audit framework?

The Internal Audit Framework details the purpose, objectives and deliverables of Internal Audit and explains the methodology and standards used to achieve independent assurance outcomes.

41. What are the parts of audit?

The audit report template includes 7 parts of elements these are: report title, introductory Paragraph, scope paragraph, executive summary, opinion paragraph, auditor's name, and auditor's signature.

42. What is called audit?

Auditing is defined as the on-site verification activity, such as inspection or examination, of a process or quality system, to ensure compliance to requirements. An audit can apply to an entire organization or might be specific to a function, process, or production step.

43. What are the limitations of internal audit?

Some of the limitations of the internal control system in auditing are: High Cost: The expense of setting up and working an Internal Audit in an association is extravagant. Unsatisfactory for a Small Organization: Internal Audit is not reasonable for small associations because of the inclusion of significant expenses.

44. What are the 4 P's of goal setting?

When establishing goals, it is important to remember the Four P's of goal setting. They need to be positive, personal, possible, and prioritized. When you are creating goals, remember to make sure that they are positive. This means that you focus on what you want to achieve rather than what you want to avoid.

45. What are the 3 R's of goal setting?

R = Rigorous, Realistic, and Results Focused (the 3 Rs).
A goal is not an activity—a goal makes clear what will be different as a result of achieving the goal.

46. What are the five 5 principle of effective goal setting?

In 1990, Locke and Dr. Gary Latham published “A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance” in which they identified five principles that were important in setting goals that will motivate others. These principles are: clarity, challenge, commitment, feedback, and task complexity.

47. What is the concept and importance of training?

Training is the process of enhancing the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job. Training process molds the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees. It is continuous and never ending in nature.

48. What is training effectiveness?

Training effectiveness measures the impact of training on the trainee's knowledge, skills, performance, and the company's ROI. The training's goals and objectives should be determined before training occurs, allowing these to be clearly and accurately measured.

49. The Prevention through Design (PtD)

The Prevention through Design (PtD) Program seeks to prevent or reduce occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities through the inclusion of prevention considerations in all designs that impact workers. “Designing out” occupational hazards and risks is the most effective way to protect workers.

50. safety by design

Prevention through design (PtD), also called safety by design usually in Europe, is the concept of applying methods to minimize occupational hazards early in the design process, with an emphasis on optimizing employee health and safety throughout the life cycle of materials and processes.

51. What are the types of preventives?

These preventive stages are primordial prevention, primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. Combined, these strategies not only aim to prevent the onset of disease through risk reduction, but also downstream complications of a manifested disease.

52. the four pillars of sustainability

Introducing the four pillars of sustainability; Human, Social, Economic and Environmental.

53. The risk matrix

The risk matrix is based on two intersecting factors: the likelihood that the risk event will occur, and the potential impact that the risk event will have on the business. In other words, it's a tool that helps you visualize the probability vs. the severity of a potential risk.

54. Risk

Risk = Likelihood x Severity
The risk is how likely it is that harm will occur, against how serious that harm could be. The more likely it is that harm will happen, and the more severe the harm, the higher the risk. And before you can control risk, you need to know what level of risk you are facing.

55. What is a 5x5 Risk Matrix?

A type of risk matrix that is visually represented as a table or a grid, a 5x5 risk matrix has 5 categories each for probability (along the X axis) and impact (along the Y axis), all following a scale of low to high.

56. What is 5S in risk management?

5S is a systematic way of organizing workplaces by eliminating waste, improving flow, and reducing the number of processes where possible. It applies the five principles: Sort (seiri), Set in order (seiton), Shine (seiso), Standardize (seiketsu), and Sustain (shitsuke).

57. The 5S pillars

The 5S pillars, Sort (Seiri), Set in Order (Seiton), Shine (Seiso), Standardize (Seiketsu), and Sustain (Shitsuke), provide a methodology for organizing, cleaning, developing, and sustaining a productive work environment.

58. What-If Analysis

What-If Analysis is the process of changing the values in cells to see how those changes will affect the outcome of formulas on the worksheet. Three kinds of What-If Analysis tools come with Excel: Scenarios, Goal Seek, and Data Tables. Scenarios and Data tables take sets of input values and determine possible results.

59. sensitivity analysis

What-if analysis, which is also called sensitivity analysis, is a tool for determining effects on outcomes in a mathematical model by changing the inputs to the model in multiple scenarios.

60. types of scenarios

There are three major types of scenarios: exploratory, normative and predictive scenarios. They can take many forms: a narrative story consisting of a few lines of text to many pages, with maps, graphics, drawings, pictures, etc. Modelling and/or simulations can also accompany scenarios.

61. The SDS

The SDS includes information such as the properties of each chemical; the physical, health, and environmental health hazards; protective measures; and safety precautions for handling, storing, and transporting the chemical.

62. (HCS) (29 CFR 1910.1200(g)),

The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (29 CFR 1910.1200(g)), revised in 2012, requires that the chemical manufacturer, distributor, or importer provide Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) (formerly MSDSs or Material Safety Data Sheets) for each hazardous chemical to downstream users to communicate information on these hazards.

63. How long is SDS valid for?

The employer may only use an existing supplier SDS if it discloses information that is current at the time the product was received and is dated less than 3 years from the date the hazardous product was received.

64. Hazard Identification (HAZID)

Hazard Identification (HAZID) is a brainstorming workshop with a multi-disciplinary team to identify potential hazards. HAZID studies may be broad in their scope and thus have a wide applicability.

65. What is difference between HAZOP and Hazid?

HAZOP (Hazard and Operabiltiy Study) is used to identify abnormalities in the work environment and pinpoint their root causes. HAZID (Hazard Identification) is a general risk analysis tool designed to alert management of any threats and hazards on the jobsite.

66. A HAZOP

A HAZOP is a systematic assessment tool used to identify and address potential hazards in industrial processes before an incident occurs that could affect the Safety of people or assets while hindering Productivity.

67. Process safety

Process safety is a disciplined framework for managing the integrity of operating systems and processes that handle hazardous substances. It relies on good design principles, engineering and operating and maintenance practices.

68. Process Safety Hazards

Hazards associated with the loss of primary containment of a hazardous substance. Process Hazards include fire, explosion, and toxic release. These hazards are associated with incidents which occur at low frequencies, but can have catastrophic consequences.

69. Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a method of generating ideas and sharing knowledge to solve a particular commercial or technical problem, in which participants are encouraged to think without interruption. Brainstorming is a group activity where each participant shares their ideas as soon as they come to mind.

70. The 4 Types of Brainstorming

Reverse Brainstorming. A creative problem-solving technique in which the problem is turned around and considered from a different point of view to spur new and different solutions. Stop-and-Go Brainstorming. ...
Phillips 66 Brainstorming. ...
Brainwriting.

71. A checklist

A checklist is a type of job aid used in repetitive tasks to reduce failure by compensating for potential limits of human memory and attention. It helps to ensure consistency and completeness in carrying out a task. A basic example is the "to do list".

72. Hierarchy of Controls

NIOSH defines five rungs of the Hierarchy of Controls: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls and personal protective equipment.

73. Organizational control

Organizational control typically involves four steps: (1) establish standards, (2) measure performance, (3) compare performance to standards, and then (4) take corrective action as needed.

74. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA)

The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) is usually the first attempt in the system safety process to identify and categorize hazards or potential hazards associated with the operation of a proposed system, process, or procedure. The PHA may be preceded with the preparation of a Preliminary Hazard List (PHL).

75. What is the purpose of PHA?

The purpose of the PHA is to identify and evaluate the hazards of the process, and ways or methods to control them. The most hazardous processes must be evaluated first. All PHAs must be completed as soon as possible.

76. What are the types of PHA analysis?

Common methods for PHA include “bowtie” analysis, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Hazard and Operability studies (HAZOPs) and “What If” analyses.

77. What is a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)?

A JHA is a method for identifying and evaluating hazards associated with tasks (steps) with a specific job or activity and eliminating or mitigating them prior to conducting work.

78. Is a JSA required by OSHA?

OSHA doesn't necessarily require you to conduct JSAs, but it does recommend you do so as a best practice.

79. Property damage liability coverage

Property damage liability coverage is required by law in most states. It typically helps cover the cost of repairs if you are at fault for a car accident that damages another vehicle or property such as a fence or building front. Property damage liability coverage usually does not cover damage to your own vehicle.

80. A tort

A tort is an act or omission that gives rise to injury or harm to another and amounts to a civil wrong for which courts impose liability. In the context of torts, "injury" describes the invasion of any legal right, whereas "harm" describes a loss or detriment in fact that an individual suffers.

81. Joint liability

Joint liability denotes the obligation of two or more partners to pay back a debt or be responsible for satisfying a liability. A joint liability allows parties to share the risks associated with taking on debt and to protect themselves in the event of lawsuits.

82. Joint and several liability

Joint and several liability arises where two or more persons under the same contract jointly promise to do the same thing, and also severally make separate promises to do the same thing.

83. The “attractive nuisance”

The “attractive nuisance” doctrine states that property owners may be held liable for injuries to children trespassing on the land if the injury is caused by a hazardous object or condition found on the premises that is likely to attract kids.

84. A job safety analysis (JSA)

A job safety analysis (JSA) is a procedure which helps integrate accepted safety and health principles and practices into a particular task or job operation. In a JSA, each basic step of the job is to identify potential hazards and to recommend the safest way to do the job.

85. Steps for Completing an Effective JSA

Step 1: Select the Job to Be Analysed. ...
Step 2: Break Down the Job Into a Sequence. ...
Step 3: Identify Prospective Hazards. ...
Step 4: Determine Preventive Measures. ...
Step 5: Document and Report Hazards. ...
Step 6: Receive Assistance When Necessary.

86. The GHS

the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). The GHS includes criteria for the classification of health, physical and environmental hazards, as well as specifying what information should be included on labels of hazardous chemicals as well as safety data sheets.

87. Asbestosis

Asbestosis is a chronic (long-term) lung condition caused by prolonged exposure to asbestos. Asbestos is a general term for a group of minerals made of microscopic fibres. In the past, it was widely used in construction. Asbestos can be very dangerous.

88. Asbestos

Asbestos is a group of naturally occurring fibrous minerals. There are six identified types of asbestos that belong to the amphibole and serpentine mineral families.

89. Medical surveillance

Medical surveillance is the systematic assessment of employees exposed or potentially exposed to occupational hazards. This assessment monitors individuals for adverse health effects and determines the effectiveness of exposure prevention strategies.

90. Common Forms of Surveillance

Interviews – For a missing person investigation, interviews are paramount to understanding the subject. ...
Physical observation – Physical observation is common for spousal investigations. ...
Electronic – Electronic monitoring is often the tool of choice among investigators.

91. What is a substance abuse test?

These tests indicate if one or more prescription or illegal drugs are present in urine. These tests detect the presence of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, opiates, methamphetamine, amphetamines, PCP, benzodiazepine, barbiturates, methadone, tricyclic antidepressants, ecstasy, and oxycodone

92. Whole-body vibration

Whole-body vibration is vibration from machines and/or vehicles that moves into the worker's body through the buttocks, back or feet. This includes: seated and standing workers who drive vehicles or mobile equipment. workers who are involved in operations in which machinery vibrates, such as vibratory separators.

93. Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS).

Vibration is transmitted into your hands and arms when using hand held / operated tools and machinery. Excessive exposure can affect the nerves, blood vessels, muscles and joints of the hand, wrist and arm causing Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS).

94. Electrical Main Hazards

electric shock and burns from contact with live parts. injury from exposure to arcing, fire from faulty electrical equipment or installations. explosion caused by unsuitable electrical apparatus or static electricity igniting flammable vapours or dusts, for example in a spray paint booth.

95. What are the main types of controls for electrical hazards?

These include: insulation, guarding, grounding, electrical protective devices, and safe work practices. One way to safeguard individuals from electrically energized wires and parts is through insulation.

96. Mechanical hazards

Mechanical hazards arise from relative movements between parts of the human body and objects such as work equipment or work objects, which lead to their contact. The result of this contact can be accidents that lead to injuries.

97. four general types of guards

There are four general types of guards:
Fixed.
Interlocked.
Adjustable.
Self-adjusting.

98. Machine guarding

Machine guarding - 1910.212(a)(1) Types of guarding. One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by point of operation, ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks.

99. Safety devices

Safety devices can be divided into contact and noncontact types. Noncontact safety devices include infrared sensing, ultrasonic, microwave, laser scanning, and laser radar.

100. Bloodborne pathogens

Bloodborne pathogens are infectious microorganisms in human blood that can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Needlesticks and other sharps-related injuries may expose workers to bloodborne pathogens.

101. waterborne pathogens

A pathogen means an agent that causes disease to a host, and waterborne pathogens are the causative agents (usually living organisms) for diseases that are being transmitted through water. Water pollution can occur due to chemical and/or biological contaminants.

102. Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (or ionising radiation), including nuclear radiation, consists of subatomic particles or electromagnetic waves that have sufficient energy to ionize atoms or molecules by detaching electrons from them.

103. Alpha particles

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus. Alpha particle emissions are generally produced in the process of alpha decay.

104. How much ionizing radiation is harmful?

Between 2 and 10 sieverts in a short-term dose would cause severe radiation sickness with increasing likelihood that this would be fatal. In a short-term dose is about the threshold for causing immediate radiation sickness in a person of average physical attributes, but would be unlikely to cause death.

105. Non-ionizing radiation

Non-ionizing radiation is described as a series of energy waves composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields traveling at the speed of light. Non-ionizing radiation includes the spectrum of ultraviolet (UV), visible light, infrared (IR), microwave (MW), radio frequency (RF), and extremely low frequency (ELF).

106. Lead permissible exposure limit (PEL)

The current OSHA standard (29 CFR 1926.62) for lead exposure in construction has a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3), measured as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

107. OSHA enforceable permissible exposure limits (PELs)

OSHA sets enforceable permissible exposure limits (PELs) to protect workers against the health effects of exposure to hazardous substances, including limits on the airborne concentrations of hazardous chemicals in the air. Most OSHA PELs are 8-hour time-weighted averages (TWA), although there are also Ceiling and Peak limits, and many chemicals include a skin designation to warn against skin contact. Approximately 500 PELs have been established.

108. Chemical hazards

Chemical hazards and toxic substances pose a wide range of health hazards (such as irritation, sensitization, and carcinogenicity) and physical hazards (such as flammability, corrosion, and explosibility).

109. ACGIH

ACGIH® is a private, not-for-profit, nongovernmental corporation. It is not a standards setting body. ACGIH® is a scientific association that develops recommendations or guidelines to assist in the control of occupational health hazards. TLVs® and BEIs® are health-based values and are not intended to be used as legal standards.

110. Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®)

Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) refer to airborne concentrations of chemical substances and represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, over a working lifetime, without adverse effects.

111. Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®)

Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®) are guidance values for assessing biological monitoring results – concentrations of chemicals in biological media (e.g., blood, urine). BEIs® represent the levels of determinants that are most likely to be observed in specimens collected from healthy workers who have been exposed to chemicals in the same extent as workers with inhalation exposure at the TLV®.

112. Action level

An airborne level, typically one-half of the PEL designated in OSHA’s substance-specific standards, 29 CFR 1910, Subpart Z , calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average, which initiates certain required activities such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance.

113. Ceiling Limit

The exposure limit a worker’s exposure may never exceed.

114. Time-Weighted Average (TWA)

The average exposure to a contaminant over a given period of time, typically 8-hours.

115. Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL)

The average exposure to a contaminant to which a worker may be exposed during a short time period (typically 15 – 30 minutes).

116. Sampling and Analytical Error

A statistical estimate of the uncertainty associated with a given exposure measurement.

117. What are the requirements for respirator use?

When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or while they are being instituted, appropriate respirators shall be used. Employers must provide appropriate respiratory protection at no cost to workers, provide appropriate training and education regarding its use, and ensure that workers use it properly.

118. root cause analysis (RCA)

In science and engineering, root cause analysis (RCA) is a method of problem solving used for identifying the root causes of faults or problems.

119. Heat stress

Heat stress can result in heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, or heat rashes. Heat can also increase the risk of injuries in workers as it may result in sweaty palms

120. Heat exhaustion

Heat exhaustion is a condition whose symptoms may include heavy sweating and a rapid pulse, a result of your body overheating. It's one of three heat-related syndromes, with heat cramps being the mildest and heatstroke being the most severe.

121. advantages of ergonomics

Advantages. more comfortable; reduces strain on hands and wrists; less chance of getting a Repetitive Strain Injury; different angles of the keyboard allow your hands to be at a more natural position; Many types of ergonomic keyboards are available to chose the one best fit for you;

122. Ergonomics

Ergonomics refers to the concept and process of fitting the job to the worker. Factors considered when designing an ergonomically sound job include both physical and environmental factors. The ultimate goal of ergonomics is to prevent workplace injury and improve overall worker health.

123. An incident investigation

An incident investigation is the account and analysis of an incident based on information gathered by a thorough examination of all contributing factors and causes involved. It is widely accepted that incidents occur as a result of a chain of events.

124. The models used in accident investigation

The models used in accident investigation can typically be grouped into three types: sequential, epidemiological, and systemic models.

125. Incident

an occurrence of an action or situation that is a separate unit of experience: happening an accompanying minor occurrence or condition, concomitant an action likely to lead to grave consequences especially in diplomatic matters. a serious border incident.

126. Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT).

Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT). The simple model attempts to illustrate that the causes of any incident can be grouped into five categories - task, material, environment, personnel, and management. When this model is used, possible causes in each category should be investigated. Each category is examined more closely below. Remember that these are sample questions only: no attempt has been made to develop a comprehensive checklist.

127. The Five Stages of an Accident Investigation

Reporting.
Gathering information.
Analysing information.
Identifying risk control measures.
Action planning and implementing.

128. OSHA General Industry Inspection Checklist

It includes fields covering safety programs, first aid and medical services, fire protection measures, and PPE provided by the employer. It also helps employees and management review the general work environment to see areas for improvement.

129. 3 parts to an OSHA inspection

The inspection includes an opening conference, a "walkaround" of all or part of the workplace, and a closing conference. This may take a few hours or several weeks, depending on the number of hazards, workplace size, and other factors.

130. What does OSHA do after an accident?

If your incident report falls into Category 1, or Category 2 and an on-site inspection is warranted, OSHA will usually conduct an on-site inspection within five working days of the initial report, or sooner for fatalities and other catastrophes. Learn how to prepare for an on-site OSHA inspection.

131. OSHA standards four categories

OSHA standards fall into four categories: General Industry, Construction, Maritime, and Agriculture. There are four groups of OSHA standards: General Industry, Construction, Maritime, and Agriculture. (General Industry is the set that applies to the largest number of workers and worksites). These standards are designed to protect workers from a wide range of hazards.

132. OSHA standard code

OSHA standards are published in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and are divided into separate standards for General Industry, Construction, and Maritime.

133. How does OSHA define a recordable injury or illness?

Any work-related fatality. Any work-related injury or illness that results in loss of consciousness, days away from work, restricted work, or transfer to another job. Any work-related injury or illness requiring medical treatment beyond first aid.

134. An incidence rate

An incidence rate describes how quickly disease occurs in a population. It is based on person-time, so it has some advantages over an incidence proportion. Because person-time is calculated for each subject, it can accommodate persons coming into and leaving the study.

135. What is recordable vs reportable incidents?

Recordable incidents are so named because the incidents must be recorded and tracked by the business. These records are commonly reviewed by OSHA as requested. The other category of incidents are reportable incidents, these injuries and illnesses are also recordable incidents

136. 'Incidence proportion' and 'incidence rate'.

Incidence = the rate of new cases of a disease occurring in a specific population over a particular period of time. Two types of incidences are commonly used: 'incidence proportion' and 'incidence rate'.

137. the Five elements of the Hazard Communication Standard

These are the Five elements of the Hazard Communication Standard. They are: Chemical Inventory, Written Program, Labels, Material Safety Data Sheets, and Training. The first element of the Hazard Communication Standard is for employers to develop inventories of all the hazardous chemicals they have at their worksite.

138. 5 classifications of injuries

The main types are primary, secondary, direct, indirect and chronic injury.

139. A recordable incident rate

A recordable incident rate, also known as Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR), is the number of incidents which have occurred on-site, usually within a year, according to a certain number of hours worked by 100 employees.

140. KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)

KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) are metrics that help businesses determine whether they're meeting specific goals. For incident management, these metrics could be number of incidents, average time to resolve, or average time between incidents.

141. 4 E's Safety

4 E's Safety:- The main thrust of accident prevention and control across the world has been on 4 E's vis (i) Education; (ii) Enforcement; (iii) Engineering; and (iv) Environment and Emergency care of road accident victims.

142. 4 C's in health and safety

The 4 C's - Competence, Control, Co-operation and Communication are a useful aid to getting organised.

143. How do you calculate TRIR safety?

The formula for how to calculate TRIR is simple: the number of incidents, multiplied by 200,000, then divided by the total number of hours worked in a year. The number 200,000 is used because it is the total number of hours 100 employees would work in a year (100 workers x 40 hours x 50 weeks).

144. difference between OSHA recordable and reportable

Recording is simply the act of tracking an on-the-job injury or illness. Multiple forms and logs need to be filled out and maintained by each organization, with different details required of each one. Reporting means notifying OSHA of certain outcomes from occupational incidents, such as a death.

145. OSHA inspections

The inspection includes an opening conference, a "walkaround" of all or part of the workplace, and a closing conference. This may take a few hours or several weeks, depending on the number of hazards, workplace size, and other factors. Take notes throughout the process.

146. Types of OSHA Inspections

Imminent Danger Inspections. ...
Investigative Inspections. ...
Employee Complaint Inspections. ...
Programmed Inspections. ...
Follow-up Inspections.

147. Frequency of OSHA Inspections

The regulation at 29 CFR 1960.25(c) charges each agency with the responsibility to conduct an annual workplace safety and health inspection.

148. Inspection Priorities

OSHA's top priority for inspection is an imminent danger-a situation where workers face an immediate risk of death or serious physical harm.

149. stages of an OSHA workplace inspection

The four main stages of an OSHA workplace inspection include:
the credential presentation.
the opening conference.
the walk around.
the closing conference.

150. OSHA inspectors

OSHA inspectors, called compliance safety and health officers, are experienced, well-trained industrial hygienists and safety professionals whose goal is to assure compliance with OSHA requirements and help employers and workers reduce on-the-job hazards and prevent injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace.

151. What is a workplace emergency?

A workplace emergency is a situation that threatens workers, customers, or the public; disrupts or shuts down operations; or causes physical or environmental damage. Emergencies may be natural or man-made, and may include hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, floods, wildfires, winter weather, chemical spills or releases, disease outbreaks, releases of biological agents, explosions involving nuclear or radiological sources, and many other hazards. Many types of emergencies can be anticipated in the planning process, which can help employers and workers plan for other unpredictable situations.

152. What is an emergency action plan?

An emergency action plan (EAP) is intended to facilitate and organize employer and worker actions during workplace emergencies and is recommended for all employers. Well-developed emergency plans and proper worker training (i.e., so that workers understand their roles and responsibilities within the plan) will result in fewer and less severe worker injuries and less damage to the facility during emergencies. A poorly prepared plan may lead to a disorganized evacuation or emergency response, resulting in confusion, injury, illness (due to chemical, biological and/or radiation exposure), and/or property damage.

153. The Employee Alarm Systems standard (29 CFR 1910.165

The Employee Alarm Systems standard (29 CFR 1910.165) is also aimed at ensuring alarms are able to be perceived by all workers at a worksite, including those with physical impairments (see OSHA's 1990 interpretation of the standard). Accordingly:
Use visual devices to alert hearing-impaired workers (in addition to audible devices); and Use tactile devices to alert visually-impaired workers (in addition to audible and visual devices).

154. Evacuation Wardens

In addition to a coordinator, designate and train workers as evacuation wardens to help move workers from danger to safe areas during an emergency (see 29 CFR 1910.38(e) and 1926.35(e)(1)). Generally, one warden for every 20 workers should be adequate, and the appropriate number of wardens should be available at all times during working hours.

155. How often to train workers?

Review the plan with all workers and consider requiring annual training on the plan. Also conduct training after:
Development of the initial plan;
Hiring of new workers;
Introduction of new equipment, materials, or processes into the workplace that affect evacuation routes;
Reassignment of workers or changing their job duties;
Change of layout or design of the facility; and
Revision or updating of emergency procedures.

156. The National Incident Management System (NIMS

The National Incident Management System (NIMS) guides all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations and the private sector to work together to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to and recover from incidents.

157. Chain of Command

It is common practice to select a responsible individual, with appropriate training or certifications, to lead and coordinate the workplace emergency plan and evacuation. It is critical that the employer ensures that the workers know the identity of the coordinator, as well as understand that the coordinator has the responsibility for making life saving decisions during an emergency.

158. Routes and exits

Most employers create floor diagrams with arrows that designate all exit route(s). These diagrams should include locations of exits, assembly points, and equipment (such as fire extinguishers, first aid kits, automated external defibrillators (AEDs), and spill kits) that may be needed in an emergency.

159. Table Top Mock Drill

Table Top Mock Drill is a planning tool used as first step in developing and testing contingency plans, for emergencies, business recovery, crisis management, mission planning, etc. It is a suggested methodology used in the US Governments National Incident Management System (NIMS).

160. What Is a Tabletop Exercise?

A tabletop exercise (sometimes shortened to TTX) is a training tool that simulates emergency situations in an informal environment. A facilitator guides exercise participants through a dangerous scenario from the safety of a conference room to practice their response strategies.

161. Incident management

Incident management is the process by which companies identify, prevent, respond to, record, and analyze exposure to health and safety risks in the workplace. Workplace accidents are all too common.

162. An incident management plan (IMP)

An incident management plan (IMP), sometimes called an incident response plan or emergency management plan, is a document that helps an organization return to normal as quickly as possible following an unplanned event.

163. What are the three C's in an incident report?

Training your brain before you find yourself in a high-pressure situation may help you save a life or potentially help someone in pain. There are three basic C's to remember—check, call, and care.

164. What are 3 basic elements in an incident?

The Three Elements of Incident Response: Plan, Team, and Tools.

165. 4 steps To resolve Conflict: CARE

1. Communicate. Open communication is key in a dispute. ...
2. Actively Listen. Listen to what the other person has to say, without interrupting. ...
3. Review Options. Talk over the options, looking for solutions that benefit everyone. ...
4. End with a Win-Win Solution.

166. What are the four C's of conflict?

When it comes to managing conflict remotely, there are four C's that matter: Commitment, Communication, Conflict Resolution, and Camaraderie in a framework developed by attorney, mediator, negotiator and conflict resolution expert Damali Peterman.

167. What are 5 conflict management techniques?

This five different approaches to conflict management and the situations they are most appropriate for. Accommodation. This is a lose/win situation. ...
Compromise. ...
Avoidance. ...
Competition. ...
Collaboration.

168. The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA

The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) provides workers' compensation coverage for employment-related injuries and occupational diseases. Benefits include wage replacement, payment for medical care, and where necessary, medical and vocational rehabilitation assistance in returning to work and survivor benefits.

169. Workers' compensation programs

Workers' compensation programs in the United States are state regulated, with laws determined by each state legislative body and implemented by a state agency. The programs provide the payment of lost wages, medical treatment, and rehabilitation services to workers suffering from an occupational injury or disease.

170. ALARP

"ALARP" is short for "as low as reasonably practicable". Reasonably practicable involves weighing a risk against the trouble, time and money needed to control it. Thus, ALARP describes the level to which we expect to see workplace risks controlled.

171. ALARA

ALARA stands for “as low as reasonably achievable”. ALARA means avoiding exposure to radiation that does not have a direct benefit to you, even if the dose is small. To do this, you can use three basic protective measures in radiation safety: time, distance, and shielding.

172. What is an Experience Modification Rating (EMR)?

EMR, or experience modification rating is a calculation used by insurance firms to price the cost of workers' compensation premiums. The rating reflects a variety lagging indicators, such as injury costs or claim history, and offers a prediction of future risk.

173. How is EMR Calculated?

The EMR is calculated by dividing a company's payroll by classification by 100 and then by a “class rate” determined by the National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI) reflecting the classification's potential risk factor.

174. What are audit techniques?

Thus far we have considered six auditing techniques: checking, vouching, and analysis, which are used in the examination of internal evidence in the books and records; and counting, observation, and confirmation, which are used to obtain evidence outside the books and records.

175. Which is an important audit technique?

There are many ways to obtain a relevant audit evidence and auditors have to use: Physical examination, Confirmations, Documentation, Analytical Procedures, Inquiries of the Client, Reperformance, Observation. Another major technique used in audit is audit sampling.

176. Is EMOD the same as EMR?

An experience modification rating (aka an EMR or e-mod) factor is a multiplier applied to the premium of a qualifying policy and is meant to provide an incentive for loss prevention. The e-mod represents either a credit or a debit that is applied to the premium before adjustments.

177. Hearts and Minds safety culture toolkit

Hearts and Minds safety culture toolkit: Designed to facilitate cultural change within Organisations. Leverage your workforce to improve safety and operational performance, and reach the top of the ‘culture ladder’. Understanding your HSE culture is one of our most widely used Hearts and Minds tools. It emphasises the role of organisational culture in improving health and safety performance, bridging the gap between where the organisations are and where they want to be on the safety culture ladder.

178. Behavioural safety management

Behavioural safety management is an approach used to address the link between the behaviour of the workforce and workplace accidents. It’s sometimes known as safety behaviour modification, behaviour-based safety, or referred to as behavioural safety approaches. Ultimately, they are all forms of behaviour modification.

179. Behavior-Based Safety

The guiding principle of behavioral safety is helping employees perform a job safely as the product of a series of safe behaviors. “Behavior” is defined as any action you can see someone doing, and it includes visible actions only (i.e., it does not refer to things you cannot see, such as an employee’s attitudes or thoughts). BBS helps determine why at-risk behavior occurs on the job and the steps necessary to change at-risk behavior into safe behavior.

180. behavior-based safety observations

Keep in mind that behavior-based safety observations must be objective—that is, based on what you actually see a person doing, not on opinions or interpretations about an employee’s performance.

181. Why is behavioral safety important?

When implemented correctly, a behavior based safety program can provide positive rewards to change unsafe behavior, reduce job-related injuries, minimize lost production hours, and improve workplace morale—essential ingredients for creating a strong safety culture.

182. the principles of behavioral safety

Principles of BBS: Define target behaviors. Develop critical behavior checklists to document instances of target behaviors. Design interventions to improve/prevent unsafe behavior.

183. What is behavioral safety checklist?

A behavior-based safety checklist is a direct-observation tool used to recognize safe behavior and eliminate the root cause of unsafe acts. Use this checklist to easily observe safe behavior such as the right selection of tools for the job, proper lifting techniques, and more.

184. The principles of ABA applied behavior analysis

The principles of ABA applied behavior analysis target the four functions of behavior, which include: escape or avoidance, attention seeking, access to tangibles or reinforcements, and instant gratification (or “because it feels good”).

185. 7 principles of behavior analysis

It is important that an individual's treatment plan has goals following these 7 dimensions: 1) Generality, 2) Effective, 3) Technological, 4) Applied, 5) Conceptually Systematic, 6) Analytic, 7) Behavioral

186. BCSP Code of Ethics

Professional ethics are essential for any professional organization and profession. They are a set of codes that establish operating guidelines. BCSP applicants, candidates, and credential holders must abide by the BCSP Bylaws and uphold the Code of Ethics.

187. A code of ethics

A code of ethics in business is a set of guiding principles intended to ensure a business and its employees act with honesty and integrity in all facets of its day-to-day operations and to only engage in acts that promote a benefit to society.

188. Open communication

Open communication is when people can openly express their thoughts and ideas to one another. In a business setting, an organization can implement open communication by encouraging all employees to express their feedback and thoughts.

187. A code of ethics

A code of ethics in business is a set of guiding principles intended to ensure a business and its employees act with honesty and integrity in all facets of its day-to-day operations and to only engage in acts that promote a benefit to society.

188. Open communication

Open communication is when people can openly express their thoughts and ideas to one another. In a business setting, an organization can implement open communication by encouraging all employees to express their feedback and thoughts.

189. What is open and closed communication?

Open communication allows for all parties to respond, while closed communication only involves one active communicator. Learning the difference between these two can make you a more efficient communicator and help you foster collaboration in any workplace.

190. Five Types of Communication

Verbal Communication. Verbal communication occurs when we engage in speaking with others. ...
Non-Verbal Communication. What we do while we speak often says more than the actual words. ...
Written Communication. ...
Listening. ...
Visual Communication.

191. four basic communication styles

There are four basic communication styles: passive, aggressive, passive-aggressive and assertive. It's important to understand each communication style, and why individuals use them.

192. 4 C's of communication

They give us the four C's of effective communication: clarity, coherence, control and credibility. If you want the reader to follow your thought, you need to do three things: Tell the reader where you're going, present your information or explain your thinking and offer your conclusion.

193. Passive communication

Passive communication is typically associated with individuals who agree to whatever the others in the group want. Their individual opinions are kept to themselves, even when they tend not to agree, which causes passive-aggressive communication to take place.

194. Aggressive communication

Aggressive communication is characterized by being controlling, demanding and sometimes hostile. As a polar-opposite of passive communication, an aggressive communicator will openly express their opinion without thinking twice, usually in a loud and dominant voice.

195. Submissive communicators

Submissive communicators are people who avoid conflict at all costs. This type of communicator tends to believe that other peoples’ needs are more important than their own and feel as if other peoples’ opinions are more intelligent and more valid than theirs.

196. Manipulative communicators

Manipulative communicators are skilled at doing whatever it takes to gain a personal advantage in any given situation. There’s usually an underlying motive when they’re speaking and they try to influence others to their own advantage.

197. Assertive communication

Assertive communication is believed to be the most effective. Assertive communicators are able to express their honest thoughts in a polite and respectful way that considers other peoples’ opinions and feelings.

198. A culture survey

measures employees' perceptions of company culture and is designed to assess whether it aligns with that of the organization. Measuring, or even quantifying a company culture is tough but necessary.

199. Perception surveys

Perception surveys are a valuable tool to evaluate regulatory performance. They measure how citizens and businesses view regulation and its effects on them.

200. Likert Scale

Using a five point Likert Scale (5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, and 1=Strongly Disagree), those experts judged the degree to which each item captured its theoretical constructs (OC, SF, PR, or PS).

201. Leading indicators

Leading indicators are proactive and preventive measures that can shed light about the effectiveness of safety and health activities and reveal potential problems in a safety and health program. Many employers are familiar with lagging indicators.

202. What are the 3 types of leading indicators?

This post examines the 3 types of leading indicators defined by the National Safety Council, including operations-based, systems-based and behavior-based indicators.

203. leading and lagging indicators

A leading indicator is a predictive measurement, for example; the percentage of people wearing hard hats on a building site is a leading safety indicator. A lagging indicator is an output measurement, for example; the number of accidents on a building site is a lagging safety indicator.

204. Leading and Lagging KPIs

The key difference between Leading and Lagging KPIs is that Leading KPIs indicate where you're likely to go, while Lagging KPIs only measure what you have already achieved.

205. Return on investment

Return on investment or return on costs is a ratio between net income and investment. A high ROI means the investment's gains compare favorably to its cost. As a performance measure, ROI is used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiencies of several different investments.

206. ROI

ROI stands for Return on Investment and is a measure of how much money is earned relative to the amount of money spent on an investment. It is usually expressed as a percentage and calculated by dividing the net profit from an investment by the cost of the investment.

207. 7 C's of presentation

An effective way to prepare a remarkable presentation is to use the seven C's: clear, compelling, customer-focused, concise, contagious, crafted (with a purpose), and call to action

208. Types of Presentations

Informative. Keep an informative presentation brief and to the point. ...
Instructional. Your purpose in an instructional presentation is to give specific directions or orders. ...
Arousing. ...
Persuasive. ...
Decision-making.

209. Elements of SHPM

Management and Leadership:
Worker Participation:
Hazard Identification and Assessment:
Hazard Prevention and Control:
Education and Training:
Evaluation and Improvement

210. What is a project safety plan?

A project safety plan in construction is a written document that outlines safety procedures, rules, and regulations to help identify potential hazards and mitigation steps. The intent of the document is to protect workers from injuries and accidents during the course of the project.

211. Safety and health program core elements

Safety and health program resources and tools are listed alphabetically within each core element area below.
Management Leadership.
Worker Participation.
Hazard Identification and Assessment.
Hazard Prevention and Control.
Education and Training.
Program Evaluation and Improvement

212. The purpose of this HSE Plan

The purpose of this HSE Plan is to provide for the systematic identification, evaluation, prevention and control of general workplace hazards, specific job hazards, potential hazards and environmental impacts that may arise from foreseeable conditions during installation and servicing of industrial projects

213. A project proposal

A project proposal will often include a gantt chart outlining the resources, tasks and timeline. Project Deliverables This is where you list out all the deliverables you expect to see after the project is closed. For example, this could be products, information, or reports that you plan to deliver to a client.

214. A Gantt chart

A Gantt chart is a bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. It was designed and popularized by Henry Gantt around the years 1910–1915. Modern Gantt charts also show the dependency relationships between activities and the current schedule status.

215. Types of Charts and Graphs

Generally, the most popular types of charts are column charts, bar charts, pie charts, doughnut charts, line charts, area charts, scatter charts, spider (radar) charts, gauges, and comparison charts. Bar Chart. Bar charts are one of the most common data visualizations. ...
Line Chart. The line chart, or line graph, connects several distinct data points, presenting them as one continuous evolution. ...
Pie Chart. ...
Maps. ...
Density Maps. ...
Scatter Plot. ...
Gantt Chart. ...
Bubble Chart.

216. The Hazard Communication Program

The Hazard Communication Program consists of six major elements: hazard evaluation, labeling, material safety data sheets, a written program, contractor requirements and training.

217. Five Types of Communication

Verbal Communication. Verbal communication occurs when we engage in speaking with others. ...
Non-Verbal Communication. What we do while we speak often says more than the actual words. ...
Written Communication. ...
Listening. ...
Visual Communication.

218. Hazard classification

Provides specific criteria for classification of health and physical hazards, as well as classification of mixtures.

219. Information and training:

Employers are required to train workers on the new label’s elements and safety data sheets format to facilitate recognition and understanding.

220. Safety Data Sheets:

Will now have a specified 16-section format.

221. Labels

Chemical manufacturers and importers will be required to provide a label that includes a harmonized signal word, pictogram, and hazard statement for each hazard class and category. Precautionary statements must also be provided.

222. Pictogram

a symbol plus other graphic elements, such as a border, background pattern, or color that is intended to convey specific information about the hazards of a chemical. Each pictogram consists of a different symbol on a white background within a red square frame set on a point (i.e. a red diamond). There are nine pictograms under the GHS. However, only eight pictograms are required under the HCS.

223. Signal words

a single word used to indicate the relative level of severity of hazard and alert the reader to a potential hazard on the label. The signal words used are "danger" and "warning." "Danger" is used for the more severe hazards, while "warning" is used for less severe hazards.

224. OSHA requirements – Hazard Communication

OSHA is requiring that employees are trained on the new label elements (i.e., pictograms, hazard statements, precautionary statements, and signal words) and SDS format by December 1, 2013, while full compliance with the final rule will begin in 2015. OSHA believes that American workplaces will soon begin to receive labels and SDSs that are consistent with the GHS, since many American and foreign chemical manufacturers have already begun to produce HazCom 2012/GHS-compliant labels and SDSs. It is important to ensure that when employees begin to see the new labels and SDSs in their workplaces, they will be familiar with them, understand how to use them, and access the information effectively.

225. the characteristic of positive safety culture

A positive safety culture shows compassion to spark positive change and does not blame or reprimand others. At a high-hazard operation with a negative safety culture, workers often feel that supervisors and company managers have little concern for their well-being.

226. the 4 components of a safety culture?

Safety culture is presented here as a pyramid with four components: safety values, safety leadership strategies, safety attitudes, and safety performance.

227. 4 C's of positive safety culture

The 4 C's - Competence, Control, Co-operation and Communication are a useful aid to getting organized.

228. Technical communication

Technical communication is a term that encompasses the strategies used to convey complex information about technical services, products, systems, or processes to targeted audiences.

229. the core elements of safety culture

“The safety culture of an organisation is the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies, and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, an organization’s health, safety, and environment management”.

230. the core value of safety culture

In a strong safety culture, people value and expect a safe and healthy workplace, people in the workplace are considered to be the most valuable resource, and safety and health is valued along with productivity, quality and pay.

231. A safety culture

A safety culture is an organisational culture that places a high level of importance on safety beliefs, values and attitudes—and these are shared by the majority of people within the company or workplace. It can be characterized as 'the way we do things around here'.

232. forms of technical communication

Most forms of technical communication address one of three primary purposes:
(1) to anticipate and answer questions (inform your readers);
(2) to enable people to perform a task or follow a procedure (instruct your readers); or
(3) to influence people's thinking (persuade your readers).

233. Risk reporting

Risk reporting is a key method of communicating risk across business units and between multiple layers of an entity.

234. What is risk communications?

Risk communication is the real-time exchange of information, advice and opinions between experts or officials and people who face a threat (from a hazard) to their survival, health or economic or social wellbeing.

235. Public security or public safety

Public security or public safety is the prevention of and protection from events that could endanger the safety and security of the public from significant danger, injury, or property damage. It is often conducted by a state government to ensure the protection of citizens, persons in their territory, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being, survival, and prosperity.

236. Worker consultation and involvement

Involve workers or their representatives in planning communications activities. They will be able to help identify and resolve barriers to communication within your organisation

237. ways to communicate safety in your workplace.

Send an email/newsletter. ...
Ensure you have adequate signage throughout the workplace. ...
Use pictures and videos. ...
Hold regular meetings. ...
Require appropriate training. ...
Make it part of the employee review process. ...
Don't skimp on the safety gear budget.

238. Written communication

Written communication is any written message that two or more people exchange. Written communication is typically more formal but less efficient than oral communication. Examples of written communication include: Emails. Text messages.

239. Lessons learned

Lessons learned are the documented information that reflects both the positive and negative experiences of a project. They represent the organization's commitment to project management excellence and the project manager's opportunity to learn from the actual experiences of others.

240. What is the Cost Benefit Principle?

The cost benefit principle holds that the cost of providing information via the financial statements should not exceed its utility to readers. The essential point is that some financial information is too expensive to produce.

241. steps to do a Cost-Benefit Analysis.

Step One: Brainstorm Costs and Benefits. ...
Step Two: Assign a Monetary Value to the Costs. ...
Step Three: Assign a Monetary Value to the Benefits. ...
Step Four: Compare Costs and Benefits.

242. Six Sigma DMAIC Process

Six Sigma DMAIC Process - Improve Phase - Conduct Cost-Benefit Analysis. Cost-benefit analysis weighs the real costs of a potential solution under consideration against the potential benefits of the solution. Consider all costs associated with getting the proposed solution up and running.

243. two methods of cost-benefit analysis

Calculate the benefit cost ratio (BCR) and internal rate of return (IRR). The results of a CBA can also be represented by two other indicators of a project's worth (in addition to NPV). These are the benefit cost ratio (BCR) and the internal rate of return (IRR).

244. types of cost analysis

There are four main types of cost analysis: cost-feasibility, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit (also referred to as benefit-cost), and cost-utility.

245. What is analogous estimating?

Analogous estimating is a technique that uses information from a similar past project in order to estimate the cost and duration of a planned project. This approach is often used when there is limited data available for a project, making it difficult to generate accurate estimates.

246. What is a Safety Stand-Down?

A Safety Stand-Down is a voluntary event for employers to talk directly to employees about safety. The National Safety Stand-Down to Prevent Falls in Construction focuses on Fall Hazards and reinforcing the importance of Fall Prevention.

247. A Whistleblower

A Whistleblower is any individual who provides the right information to the right people. Stated differently, lawful whistleblowing occurs when an individual provides information that they reasonably believe evidences wrongdoing to an authorized recipient.

248. The analogy method

The analogy method compares a new or proposed system with one analogous (i.e., similar) system, that was typically acquired in the recent past, for which there is accurate cost and technical data. There must be a reasonable correlation between the proposed and “historical” system.

249. Cost-benefit analysis

Cost-benefit analysis is a systematic method for quantifying and then comparing the total costs to the total expected rewards of undertaking a project or making an investment. If the benefits greatly outweigh the costs, the decision should go ahead; otherwise, it should probably not.

250. forms of written communications

A few common forms of written communications include memos, bulletins, emails, faxes, and written advertisements.